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Appendices, Bibliography, & End Notes


2004 Intro1984 IntroChapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9AppendicesBibliographyEnd Notes

Appendices

Appendix I: Northern Thai Churches 1868-1920


Church

Date Founded


Church

Date Founded

1.

Chiang Mai

18 Apr 1868

20.

Nong Fan

1910

2.

Bethlehem

11 Jul 1880

21.

Ban Tho

10 Mar 1912

3.

Lampang

Oct. 1880

22.

Chae Hom

7 Apr 1912

4.

Mae Dok Daeng

25 Dec 1880

23.

Leper Church

Jun 1913

5.

Chiang Saen

ca. Apr 1888

24.

Mae Kha Wak

Jun 1913

6.

Chiang Rai

13 Apr 1890

25.

San Pong

31 May 1914

7.

Lamphun

25 Dec 1891

26.

Ban Pa Pung

May 1914

8.

Wiang Pa Pao

Jan 1892

27.

Chiang Kham

17 Sep 1914

9.

Chiang Dao

5 Nov 1893

28.

Muang Pan

Aug 1915

10.

San Sai

21 Mar 1894

29.

Ban Tah Nong Khwai

Aug 1915

11.

Phrae

22 Mar 1894

30.

Chai Sathan

Aug 1915

12.

Mae Pu Kha

1 Jul 1894

31.

Moon Muang

Aug 1915

13.

Wang Mun

1895

32.

Nong Bua

Aug 1915

14.

Bethel

1895

33.

Sri Chai Mun

Aug 1915

15.

Nan

Sep 1896

34.

Sri Ngam

Aug 1915

16.

Muang Phrao

1902

35.

Thung Tom

Aug 1915

17.

Nang Lae

Jan 1906

36.

Suan Dok

12 Sep 1915

18.

Muang Yao

26 Jun 1910

37.

Fang

27 Feb 1916

19.

Chang Kham

1910

Sources: Records of the Board of Foreign Missions and Laos News & North Laos News

Appendix II: Membership Statistics of the Laos Mission, 1869-1920

Year Members Year Members Year Members Year Members
1869 5 1882 83 1895 2000(a) 1908 3705
1870 5 1883 150 1896 n.a. 1909 3821
1871 5 1884 151 1897 n.a. 1910 4038
1872 6 1885 241 1898 2110 1911 4412
1873 4 1886 322 1899 2257 1912 5218
1874 4 1887 430(a) 1900 2440 1913 6299
1875 4 1888 590 1901 2557 1914 6934
1876 9 1889 722 1902 2706 1915 6630
1877 21 1890 884 1903 2738 1916 6647
1878 31 1891 1113 1904 2959 1917 6786
1879 49 1892 n.a. 1905 3078 1918 6571
1880 83 1893 n.a. 1906 3273 1919 6686
1881 127 1894 1836 1907 3494 1920 6649

(a) estimated from incomplete figures

Sources: Chiang Mai Church Sessional Records, the Records of the American Presbyterian Mission, Eakin Papers, & Records of the Board of Foreign Missions.

Appendix III: Dates for Publication of Books of the Northern Thai Bible

Year

Book

Year

Book

Year

Book

1893:


Acts

1906:

Isaiah

1910:

Romans

Matthew

Ruth

1912:

Revelation

1894:

Luke

Jonah

1913:

Hebrews

John

Galatians

1914:

I&II Thessalonians

Psalms

Colossians

1915:

II Samuel

1898:

Genesis

Philemon (a)

Esther

1900:

James

I&II Peter

1916:

Deuteronomy

1901:

Philippians

I II & III John

1919:

Malachi

1904:

Mark

Jude

I& II Timothy

1908:

Exodus

Titus

I Samuel

(a) probable date of publication

Source: Records of the Board of Foreign Missions.

Table of Contents

Bibliography

This bibliography includes only those resources directly related to northern Siam and the northern Thai church, excepting only a few useful entries not about those fields. All of the entries about northern Siam and the northern Thai church are available at the Payap College Archives.

PRIMARY RESOURCES

Records Groups

Rec
ords of the American Missionary Association. Microfilm. The originals are at the Amistad Research Center, Dillard University, New Orleans USA.

Records of the American Presbyterian Mission. At the Payap College Archives.

Rec
ords of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. Microfilm. In two Series. The originals of Series I (1840-1910) no longer exist. The originals of Series II (1911-1930) are at the Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelpha USA.

Papers of Dan Beach Bradley. Microfilm. The originals are at the Oberlin College Archives, Oberlin, Ohio USA.

Papers of Paul A. Eakin. At the Payap College Archives.

Research Papers of Maen Pongudom. Photocopies of originals at the Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia USA.

Other Sources

"Findings of the Bangkok Conference called by John R. Mott." Bangkok: Bangkok Times Press, 1929.

Laos News 1904-1916. Became the North Siam News 1917-1919.

Morgan, Brian. "A Brief Description of C.C.T. Rural Congregational Life." Chiang Mai: typescript, 1979.

National Christian Council. Minutes of Meeting, 1940.

Siam Outlook 1921.

Siam Repository 1869-1873.

SECONDARY RESOURCES

Backus, Mary (ed.). Siam and Laos as Seen by Our American Missionaries. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1884.

Bock, Carl A. Temples and Elephants. London: Martin Searle and Rivington, 1884.

Bradt, Charles Edwin, William Robert King, and Herbert Ware Rehard, Around the World Studies and Stories of Presbyterian Foreign Missions. Wichita: The Missionary Press, 1912.

Briggs, William A. "Missions Among the Laos of Indo-China-1," Missionary Review of the World XII (April 1899).

Brown, Arthur Judson. Rising Churches in Non-Christian Lands. New York: The Presbyterian Department of Missionary Education, 1915.

Chayan Hiranpan. "The History of the San Sai Church, (in Thai). Chinag Mai: typescript, 1984.

Curtis, Lillian Johnson. The Laos of North Siam. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1903.

Dodd, William C. The Tai Race. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Torch Press, 1923.

Dunbar, Janice E. "ABS History. Distribution. Abroad. Siam, 1901-1930." New York: American Bible Society, typescript, n.d.

Freeman, John H. An Oriental Land of the Free. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1910.

Hall
et, Holt S. A Thousand Miles on an Elephant in the Shan States. London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1890. Hanna, Claralice. Letters From Hazel. Typescript, 1983.

Hollis, Michael. Paternalism and the Church: A Study of South Indian Church History. London: Oxford, 1962.

Hovemyr, Anders. "Apropos The Kengtung Question'." Chiang Mai: typescript, 1983.

Hug
hes, Philip J. "Christianity and Culture: A Case Study in Northern Thailand." Chiang Mai: doctoral thesis, South East Asia Graduate School of Theology, 1983.

Hug
hes, Philip J. Proclamation and Response: A Study of the History of the Christian Faith in Northern Thailand. Chiang Mai: Payap College Manuscript Division, 1982.

McDonald, N.A. Siam. Philadelphia: Alfred Martien, 1871.

McFarland, George Bradley (ed.) Historical Sketch of Protestant Missions. Bangkok: Bangkok Times Press, 1928.

McGilvary, Daniel. A Half Century Among the Siamese and the Lao. New York: Revell, 1912.

Maen Pongudom. "Apologetics and Missionary Proclamation." Dunedin, New Zealand: doctoral thesis, University of Otago, 1979.

Peabody, Helen. Mary Margaretta Campbell: A Brief Record of a Youthful Life. Cincinnati: Silvius and Smith, 1881.

Renard, Ronald D. Kariang: "History of Karen-T ai Relations From the Beginnings to 1923." Honululu: doctoral thesis, University of Hawaii, 1980.

Smith, Alex G. Siamese Gold: A History of Church Growth in Thailand. Bangkok: Kanok Bannasan, 1982.

Speer, Robert E. Christianity and the Nations. New York: Revell, 1910.

Speer, Robert E., Dwight H. Day, and David Bovaird. Report of Deputation. New York: Board of Foreign Missions, 1916.

Swanson, Herbert R. "Advocate and Partner: Missionaries and Modernization in Nan Province, Siam, 1895- 1934." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 13, 2 (September 1982): 296-309.

Swanson, Herbert R. "The Kengtung Question: Presbyterian Mission and Comity in Eastern Burma, 1896-1913." Journal of Presbyterian History 60,1 (Spring 1982): 59-79.

Swanson, Herbert R. "This Seed: Missionary Printing and Literature as Agents of Change in Northern Siam, 1892- 1926." Presented at the Seminar on Change in Northern Thailand and the Shan States 1886 -1940, Payap College, 20-25 June 1983.

Taylor, Hugh. A Missionary in Siam. 2 vols. San Francisco: typescript, 1947.

Wakeman, Esther. "History of Sri Ngam Church." Chiang Mai: typescript, 1984.

Wells, Kenneth E. History of Protestant Work in Thailand 1828-1958. Bangkok: Church of Christ in Thailand, 1958.
Table of Contents

End Notes

These notes have been abbreviated in order to conserve space. For complete citations the reader should consult the Bibliography. Abbreviations are used to cite primary sources. They are as follows:

AMA

Records of the American Missionary Association

APM

Records of the American Presbyterian Mission

BFM

Records of the Board of Foreign Missions

DBB

Papers of Dan Beach Bradley

LN

Laos News

NSN

North Siam News continues LN.

PAE

Papers of Paul A. Eakin

RPM

Research Papers of Maen Pongudom

All references to primary resources are for BFM unless otherwise noted. Series One is indicated by a volume number (e.g. v.22) Series Two is indicated by a folder reference code (e.g. 84-1-la).

Volume numbers for LN-NSN are not consistent. With the April 1916 issue, the volume numbers were mistakenly reduced by one year. That issue should have been numbered as XIII, 2, but it was mistakenly assigned XII, the same as the second number for 1915. From 1916 onwards all issues reflect the new (mistaken) enumeration.

INTRODUCTION

[1] McGilvary, Half Century, 1912.

[2] Hughes, Proclamation and Response, 1983; Swanson, "Kengtung Question," 1982, "This Seed," 1983, and "Advocate and Partner," 1982.

[3] McFarland, Historical Sketch, 1928, contains much useful material, but it must be used with care. The same is true of Wells, Protestant Work, 1958, and Smith, Siamese Gold, 1982, more recent secondary works.

[4] Hans Küng, The Church (NY: Image Books, 1967): 23. Itatlics in the original.

[5] Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1966): 72.

[6] Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, III (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1963): 384.

CHAPTER 1

[1] See McGilvary, Half Century, 20-21.

[2] Daniel Boorstin, The Americans: The Democratic Experience (NY: Random House, 1973): 566.

[3] Based on the draft copy of Prasit Pongudom's history of the Church of Christ in Thailand in preparation.

[4] See McFarland, Historical Sketch, 10-11.

[5] For an impressionistic and entertaining account of the trials and tribulations of foreign life in Bangkok in those years, see William Bradley, Siam Then: The Foreign Colony in Bangkok Before and After Anna (Pasadena: William Carey Library, 1981).

[6] See McGilvary to Executive Committee, 10 Feb 1864, v. 2; and McFarland, Historical Sketch, 113.

[7] House to Lowrie, 6 Oct 1854. v. 2.

[8] Bradley to Whipple, 6 Dec 1859 and 15 July 1859, AMA; McGilvary to Executive Committee, 10 Feb 1864, v. 2; Whipple to Bradley, 2 July 1861, DBB.

[9] McGilvary, Half Century, 19-52.

[10] McGilvary, Half Century, 52, 57; and McGilvary to Lowrie, 9 Oct 1862, v. 2.

[11] McGilvary, Half Century, 59-65; and McGilvary to Executive Committee, 10 Feb 1864, v. 2.

[12] McGilvary, Half Century, 64; and McGilvary to Lowrie, 13 Feb 1864, v. 2.

[13] McGilvary to Executive Committee, 10 Feb 1864, v. 2; and House to Lowrie, 6 Oct 1854, v. 2.

[14] McGilvary to Irving, 28 July 1866, v. 3.

[15] McGilvary to Irving, 10 Sep 1866, v. 3.

[16] McGilvary to Irving, 19 Apr 1867, and 9 July 1867, v. 3; and McGilvary, Half Century, 77-80.

[17] McGilvary to Brethren, 20 Nov 1867, v. 3; and McGilvary, Half Century, 90-91.

[18] Laos Mission to Executive Committee, 30 Sep 1868, v. 3.

[19] McGilvary to Irving, 12 Jan 1869, v. 3; and McGilvary, Half Century, 96-99.

[20] McGilvary to Irving, 12 Jan 1869, and 1 Mar 1869, v. 3.

[21] McGilvary, Half Century, 99-101; and McGilvary, "Long Ago-the First Laos Believer," LN V, 2 (April 1908): 46-49.

[22] Siam Repository 2,1 (1870): 123-24.

[23] McGilvary to Irving, 1 Nov 1869; Wilson, Mission Annual Report 1870, v. 3; and Wilson to Bradley, 7 July 1869, 84-2-lb.

[24] Wilson to Irving, 3 Jan 1870, v. 3.

[25] Based on McGilvary, Half Century, 102-117; and "Sessional Records of the First Presbyterian Church of Chiang Mai," 16-23, APM. See also McGilvary to Irving, 1 Nov 1869, v. 3; and Wilson to Irving, 3 Jan 1870, v. 3.

[26] McGilvary to Irving, 27 Jan 1869, and 1 March 1869, v. 3.

[27] "Sessional Records," 22.

[28] Based on McGilvary, Half Century, 118-139; and McDonald, Siam, 183-201.

[29] Bradley to Sarah and Dwight, 7 June 1870, DBB.

[30] McGilvary to Irving, 1 Nov 1869, v. 3.

[31] See Hughes, Proclamation and Response, 14ff; Wilson's comments on the Christian converts' poor quality and lack of spirituality are in Wilson to Irving, 25 May 1882, v. 4; and the comments that many converts became Christian only for social or financial gain are in Bock, Temples and Elephants, 200.

CHAPTER 2

[1] The concepts of traditional society and modernization used here are based on the work of Peter Berger. See Berger, Pyramids of Sacrifice (London: Alien Lane, 1974) and Peter Berger, Briggite Berger, and Hansfried Kellner, The Homeless Mind (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1973). For the relationship of the Laos Mission to modernization see Swanson, "Advocate and Partner," 1982, and "This Seed," 1983.

[2] See McGilvary to Irving, 10 Apr 1872, and 4 Dec 1872, v. 3; and "Sessional Records," 24-29.

[3] Wilson to Irving, 1 Sep 1873, v. 3.

[4] McGilvary to Irving, 11 Mar 1871, v. 3.

[5] Wilson to Irving, 1 Sep 1873, v. 3.; and Wilson, Mission Annual Report 1873, v. 3.

[6] Wilson to Executive Committee, 30 Sep 1874, v. 3; and "Sessional Records," 35.

[7] See "Sessional Records" for years 1870-1875; and Wilson to Irving, 12 Fob 1880, v. 4.

[8] McGilvary to Irving, 1 Nov 1875, v. 3.

[9] Wilson, Mission Annual Report 1873, v. 3; and McGilvary Half Century, 69.

[10] McGilvary, Half Century, 150.

[11] "Sessional Records," 38-40; McFarland, Historical Sketch, 120; and McGilvary to Irving, 12 Aug 1876, v. 3.

[12] McGilvary to Irving, 11 Dec 1876, v. 3; and McGilvary, Mission Annual Report 1876, v. 3.

[13] McGilvary to Irving, 12 Aug 1876, v. 3.

[14] McGilvary to Irving, 12 Aug 1876, v. 3; and McGilvary to Irving, 9 Oct 1876, v. 4.

[15] McGilvary to Irving, 11 Dec 1876, v. 3; "Sessional Records," passim; and McGilvary to Irving, 1 Mar 1877, v. 3.

[16] "Sessional Records," 51-53.

[17] "Sessional Records," 56-59.

[18] "Sessional Records," 54-55.

[19] McGilvary, Half Century, 217.

[20] In 1885, the Rev. Chalmers Martin referred to the "Proclamation of Religious Liberty" issued "by the King of Siam," Martin to Irving, 9 June 1885, v. 5. A book on missions in Siam published the year before asserted that the Edict was issued by the King for all of the North and "by implication" applied to the entire Kingdom, Backus, Siam and Laos, 409. Freeman in 1910 called the Edict "the charter of their liberties" for the northern Thai Christians, Freeman, Oriental Land, 115. The general misunderstanding regarding the author and the significance of the Edict has continued down to the present. See Horace W. Ryburn, "Tomorrow Was Born Yesterday," an address to the Bangkok Rotary Club, 2 Feb 1961 (Bangkok: typescript, 1961): 3; and Smith, Siamese Gold, 72 which follows Backus cited above.

[21] This discussion is based on McGilvary, Half Century, 207-220.

[22] McGilvary, Half Century, 217-220.

[23] Wilson to Lowrie, 23 July 1880, v. 4; and McGilvary to Irving, 19 Nov 1880, v. 4.

[24] Wilson to Irving, 10 Oct 1882, and 27 Dec 1882, v. 4.

[25] Irwin to Speer, 15 Sep 1894, v. 11.

[26] For example, see Martin to Irving, 9 June 1885, v. 5; and McGilvary to Mitchell, 22 July 1886, v. 5.

[27] Wilson, Mission Annual Report 1879, v. 4; Wilson to Irving, 14 Jan 1880, v. 4; and McGilvary, Half Century, 225-228.

[28] Peabody, Campbell, 24-28; and Campbell to Irving, 20 Oct 1879, v. 4.

[29] Wilson, Mission Annual Report 1880, v. 4.

[30] Wilson to Lowrie, 23 July 1880, v. 4: and K.M. Wilson to Irving, 24 Aug 1880, v. 4.

[31] Peabody, Campbell, 27-28; McGilvary, Half Century, 199-201; "Sessional Records," 77-80; McGilvary to Irving, 19 Nov 1880, v. 4; Wilson to Irving, 30 Dec 1881, v. 4; and Peoples to Mitchell, 14 Jan 1886, v. 5. See also, Taylor to Jessup, 26 Sep 1890, v. 7.

[32] McGilvary, Half Century, 195; "Sessional Records," 59-64, 71-73, 81-82, 93-94; and McGilvary to Irving, 1 Oct 1877, v. 4.

[33] Wilson to Irving, 14 Jan 1880, and 1 Jan 1881, v. 4.

[34] Wilson to Lowrie, 12 June 1880, v. 4.

[35] Dodd, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1890, v. 22.

[36] McGilvary, Half Century, 203-206. See also, Hughes, Proclamation and Response, 15-17.

[37] Peabody, Campbell, 45-47; McGilvary, Half Century, 236; and Wilson to Irving, 22 Nov 1880, v. 4.

[38] Wilson to Irving, 1 Aug 1882, and 31 Aug 1882, v. 4.

[39] Wilson to Irving, 25 May 1882, v. 4; and S.C. Peoples, "Rev. Daniel McGilvary, D.D. An Appreciation," LN VIII,4(Oct 1911): 119. See also, McGilvary to Irving, 18 Jan 1881, v. 4.

[40] McGilvary, Half Century, 242-243.

[41] Mission Annual Report 1885, v. 5.

[42] See McGilvary to Borad, 20 May 1885, v. 5; Martin to Irving, 31 Aug 1885, v. 5; Dodd to Mitchell, 17 Dec 1889, v. 7; and esp. McGilvary, Half Century, 287.

[43] McGilvary, Half Century, 230-232.

[44] McGilvary to Irving, 31 May 1884, and 16 Mar 1885, v. 5; Peoples to Mitchell, 14 Jan 1886, v. 5; Mission Annual Report 1885, v. 5; and McGilvary, Half Century, 262-264.

[45] Peoples to Mitchell, 14 Jan 1886, v. 5; Peoples to Martin (copy), 2 May 1887, v. 6; Peoples to Mitchell, 26 June 1888, v. 6; and Wilson, Lampang Station Annual Report 1888, v. 22.

[46] Martin to Irving, 9 June 1885, v. 5; Martin to Mitchell, 21 July 1885, v. 5; Martin to Irving, 31 Aug 1885, v. 5; Mission Annual Report 1885, v. 5; and Interview with Tip Sri Laum, Tape, at the Payap College Archives, 1980.

[47] McGilvary to Mitchell, 3 July 1885, v. 5.

[48] Mission Annual Report 1885, v. 5.

[49] Wilson to Irving, 1 Jan 1881, and 2 June 1881, v. 4; and Wilson to Irving, 5 March 1884, v. 5.

[50] Martin to Mitchell, 20 Apr 1886, v. 5; McGilvary to Mitchell, 6 July 1886, and 22 July 1886, v. 5; and McGilvary, Half Century, 276-282.

[51] McGilvary, Half Century, 289-291, 315; Collins, Annual Mission Report 1888, v. 22; and Dodd to Mitchell, 17 Dec 1889, v. 7.

[52] McGilvary, "The Laos Prisoner, "[l 889], v. 7; McGilvary, Mission Annual Report 1889, v. 22; Collins to Mitchell, 9 July 1889, and 26 July 1890. v. 7; and McGilvary, Half Century, 300-304.

[53] McGilvary to Irving, 31 Dec 1870, v. 3.

[54] Westervelt to Mitchell, 6 Nov 1888, v. 6.

[55] Collins to Mitchell, 27 Mar 1888, v. 6; and Collins to Mitchell, 9 July 1889, v. 7.

[56] Dodd, "A Kansas Boom In Laosland," [Oct 1888] , v. 6.

[57] Taylor to Jessup, 26 Sep 1890, v. 7; Fleeson to Mitchell, 20 Oct 1891. v. 8; and Fleeson to Mitchell, 2 May 1892, v. 9.

CHAPTER 3

[1] House to Lowrie, 6 Oct 1854, v. 2.

[2] See Irwin to Mitchell, 7 July 1891, v. 9; Briggs to Mitchell, 12 Dec 1892, v. 9; and Denman, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1897, v. 19.

[3] Maen, "Apologetics," 36-38.

[4] Dodd to Mitchell, 9 Fob 1891, v. 8; Briggs to Grant, 20 June 1893, v. 9; Callender to Friends, 9 May 1899, v. 15; 'The Laos Mission Letter for the Quarter Ending July 31, 1900," v. 16; McGilvary, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1889, v. 22; Briggs to Brown, 15 Apr 1903, v. 272; Mason to Brown, 28 Aug 1918, 84-l-9c; Lampang Station Annual Report 1907, v. 281; Cort to Brown, 11 Oct 1916, 84-l-8b; Denman, Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1897, v. 19; C.W. Mason, 'Temptation Strong in Time of Sickness," LN IV,4 (Oct 1907): 132; Mr. & Mrs. Crooks, Personal Annual Report 1915, 84-l-7b; Freeman, Collins, & White, Laos Mission Annual Report 1912, 84-l-5a.

[5] For examples, see J.L. Hartzell, "Evangelistic Touring in Lakawn Province," LN XII, 3(July 1916): 81; W. A. Briggs, "Missions Among the Laos," 268; Speer, Deputation, 18; Maen, Apologetics, 36-38, 46.

[6] See Swanson, "Kengtung Question," 1982.

[7] Dodd to Mitchell, 26 Jan 1891, v. 8.

[8] Martin to Irving, 31 Aug 1885, v. 5; Dodd, "A Kansas Boom in Laosland," [Oct 1888], v. 6; Collins to Mitchell, 18 Dec 1888, v. 6; and McGilvary, Half Century, 266-269.

[9] Dodd to Mitchell, 26 Jan 1891, v. 8; Dodd to Mitchell, 15 Sep 1891, v. 9; McKean to Mitchell, 17 Sep 1891, v. 9; and Dodd to Mitchell, 18 Oct1891, v. 9.

[10] Dodd to Mitchell, 26 Nov 1891, and 8 July 1892, v. 9; Dodd, Tai Race, 263; Irwin, Lamphun Station Annual Report 1893, v. 22; Peoples to Speer, 16 Aug 1894, v. 11; and Irwin, Lamphun Station Annual Report 1895, v. 22.

[11] Irwin to Speer, 10 Jan 1896, v. 13; Campbell, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1897, v. 19. And see Lamphun File, PAE.

[12] Taylor to Mitchell, 10 Jan 1892, v. 9; Briggs to Mitchell, 25 Jan 1892, v. 9; and Dodd to Mitchell, 20 Jan 1893, v. 9.

[13] Taylor to Mitchell, 4 Apr 1890, v. 7; and McGilvary, Half Century, 309.

[14] Briggs to Grant, 12 Mar 1893; and Peoples to Grant, 13 Apr 1893, v. 9.

[15] Briggs to Grant, 20 June 1893, and 17 July 1893, v. 9.

[16] Briggs to Speer, 27 Mar 1894, v. 9; Shields to ?, 30 Aug 1894, v. 9; Anabelle K. Briggs to Speer, 31 Oct 1894, v. 11; Briggs to Speer, 29 Nov 1894, v. 11; Lillian Shields, Phrae Station Bimonthly Report, 24 Jan 1895, v. 11; Shields to Board, 14 May 1895, v. 11; and Briggs to Speer, 26 Sep 1895. v.11.

[17] Irwin to Speer, 10 Jan 1896, v. 13; Thomas to Friends, 23 Feb 1896. v. 13; Thomas to Labaree, 16 Oct 1897, v. 13; and Hatch to Labaree, 16 Oct 1897, v. 13.

[18] Hatch to Labaree, 16 Oct 1897, v. 13; Mission Bimonthly Letters, Oct 1897, v. 19; and Callender, "Report of the Comm. of the whole re Disposition of Forces,"[Jan 1899], v. 15.

[19] Thomas, Phrae Station Annual Report 1898, v. 22; Shields to Brown, 30 Aug 1898, v. 15; Hatch to Brown, 11 Jan 1899, v. 15; Shields to Brown, 17 Oct 1899, v. 15; and, Mission Bimonthly Letters, Aug 1899, v. 15.

[20] See Phrae File, PAE.

[21] Virtually every secondary account dates the opening of the Nan Station as 1894. That date is incorrect as Peoples spent only a few weeks in Nan that year. The correct date is 1895. For the opening of Nan see Briggs to Speer, 27 Mar 1894, v. 9; Peoples to Speer, 30 Apr 1894, v. 11; Briggs to Speer; 17 Aug 1894, v. 11; Peoples to Dulles, 8 Jan 1895, v. 15; Irwin to Brown, 20 Sep 1898, v. 15. See also the Nan File, PAE; and McGilvary, Half Century, 158.

[22] Peoples to Labaree, 12 Nov 1896, v. 13; Freeman to Friends of the North Laos Mission, 18 Apr 1896, v. 13; Fleeson to Labaree, 6 Aug 1897, v. 13; and Peoples to Brown, 21 Apr 1898, v. 15.

[23] Peoples, Nan Station Annual Report 1897, v. 19; Irwin to Brown, 28 July 1899, v. 15; Mission Bimonthly Letters, Aug 1899, v. 15; and Irwin to Brown, 23 Sep 1899, v. 15.

[24] Irwin to Brown, 23 Sep 1899, v. 15; and Mission Station Reports 1899, v. 16.

[25] Briggsto Fenn, 17 Apr 1902, v. 22; Mission Station Reports 1900, v. 281; and Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1901, v. 281.

[26] Chiang Mat Station Annual Report 1896, v. 22; and Dodd to Mitchell, 20 Jan 1893, v. 9.

[27] Phraner to Speer, 14 Mar 1894, and 31 May 1894, v. 11; Denman to Labaree, 2 Sep 1896, v. 13; Denman, Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1897, v. 19; Wilson, Mission Annual Report 1897, v. 19; Mission Bimonthly Letters, May 1898, v. 22.

[28] Mission Station Reports 1899, v. 16; Dodd to Labaree, 25 Oct 1897, v. 13; and Mission Bimonthly Letters, Apr 1899, v. 22.

[29] Collins to Mitchell, 26 July 1890, v. 7; the Chiang Mai File, PAE; Evander B. McGilvary, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1892, v. 22; Phraner to Speer, 31 May 1894, v. 11; Mission Bimonthly Letters, Nov 1898, v. 22; Campbell Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1897, v. 19; McGilvary to Brown, 16 Feb 1899, v. 15; and "The Laos Mission Letter for the Quarter Ending April 30, 1900," v. 16.

[30] Nellie McGilvary, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1894, v. 22; and Chayan, "San Sai Church," 1984.

[31] Taylor to Mitchell, 22 Sep 1891, v. 9; and Wilson, Lampang Station Annual Report 1894, v. 22.

[32] Nellie McGilvary, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1894, v. 22.

[33] See Swanson, "Kengtung Question," 70.

[34] McGilvary, Half Century, 276; and Phraner to Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor, Presbyterian Church, New Rochelle, NY, 8 Aug 1891, v. 9.

[35] Evander McGilvary to Mitchell, 25 Feb 1892, v. 9; McKean to Mitchell, 10 Mar 1892, v. 9; Irwin, "The Northern Laos Field," 15 Feb 1893, v. 9; Dodd to Labaree, 10 May 1897, v. 13; Nellie McGilvary, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1894, v. 22; and Mission Bimonthly Letters, Apr 1899, v. 22. McGilvary incorrectly dates his first contact with the Lahu as 1891, in Half Century, 322-326.

[36] Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1901, v. 281; Mission Annual Report 1905, v. 281; and Dr. & Mrs. Briggs, Personal Annual Report 1905, v. 281.

[37] Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1907, v. 281; Dodd, Mission Annual Report 1908, v. 281; Chiang Rai Annual Report 1910, v. 281; Bachtell, "Out-Village Work in Chieng Rai Province, "LN XII, 1 (Jan 1915): 9; Dodd, Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1915, 84-l-8a; Bachtell, "Out-village Work in Chieng Rai Province For The Year 1917," 84-1-10a; and Bachtell, Personal Annual Report 1915, 84-l-7b.

[38] Mission Station Reports 1900, v. 281; McGilvary to Brown, 25 Aug 1898. v. 15; and McGilvary, Half Century, 393-394, 402-410.

[39] Mission Station Reports 1900, v. 281; McGilvary to Brown, 4 Jan 1899. v. 15; Curtis to Brown, 9 Jan 1899, v. 15; and Mission Bimonthly Letters, Aug 1899, v. 15.

[40] "The Laos Mission Letter for the Quarter Ending Jan 31, 1900," v. 15; Mission Station Reports 1900, v. 281; Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1901, v. 281; and Lampang Station Annual Report 1904, v. 281.

[41] Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1904, v. 281; Campbell, Personal Annual Report 1904, v. 281; Dodd, Mission Annual Report 1908, v. 281; Dr. & Mrs. Briggs, Personal Annual Report 1909, v. 281; Mrs. C.H. Crooks, "Notes From Lakawn," LN XI, 4 (Oct 1914): 115-116; LN XII, 4 (Oct 1916): 90; and Irwin to Haven (copy), 10 Oct 1918, 84-1-10a.

[42] Mission Station Reports 1899, v. 16.

[43] This discussion of the Mission Press is based largely on Swanson, "This Seed," 1983. See also in reference to the rationale for the press Taylor to Mitchell, 11 Feb 1890, v. 7; Fleeson to Mitchell, 22 Feb 1890, v. 7; and Irwin to Mitchell, 7 July 1891, v. 9.

[44] Irwin to Mitchell, 7 July 1891, v. 9; McGilvary, Half Century, 381, 423; and McGilvary, "Rev. Jonathan Wilson, D.D., An Appreciation," LN VIII, 3 (July 1911): 81.

[45] See Mission Bimonthly Letters, March, May, and July 1898, v. 22; Swanson, "This Seed," 11; and Mrs. Charles Crooks, "The Lao Christian News - Vernacular," NSN XIII, 3 (July 1917): 78-79.

[46] Swanson, "This Seed," 1983.

[47] Irwin, Lamphun Station Annual Report 1895, v. 22; Denman, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1895, v. 22; Thomas to Friends, 1 Jan 1896, v. 13; Mckean to Speer, 30 Mar 1896, v. 13; Peoples to Labaree, 12 Nov 1896, v. 13; Thomas to Friends, 23 Feb 1897, v. 13; Lampang Station Bimonthly Letter, Feb 1897, v. 13; and "The Laos Mission Letter for the Quarter Ending Jan 31, 1900," v. 16.

[48] Dodd to Labaree, 25 Oct 1897, v. 13; Hansen to Brown, ca. May 1899 , v. 15; Mission Bimonthly Letters, Oct 1897, v. 19; and Denman, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1895, v. 22.

[49] Nan Station Annual Report 1904, v. 281; and "Native Evangelistic Work," LNII, 1 (Jan 1905): 11.

[50] As one example, see Swanson, "Advocate and Partner," 1982.

CHAPTER 4

[1] For two cogent statements regarding the importance of developing "native" church leadership and self-reliance in Presbyterian missions see Brown, Rising Churches, 168ff; and Speer, Christianity and Nations, 127ff.

[2] See Brown, Rising Churches, 24.

[3] See Lucien M. Hanks, "The Thai Social Order as Entourage and Circle," in Skinner and Kirsch (eds.), Change and Persistence in Thai Society (Ithaca: Cornell, 1975): 197-218.

[4] See Hughes, Proclamation and Response, 17 - 19: and J.C. Millikan, "Report of Visit to Siam, 1923," RPM.

[5] Dodd, Chiang Rai Church Annual Report 1914, 84-l-7a.

[6] Jack M. Potter, Thai Peasant Social Structure (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1976): 51-56.

[7] See Brown, Rising Churches, 52ff.

[8] See Swanson, "Advocate and Partner," 302-304, for a description of missionary status in society.

[9] Harris to Brown, 8 June 1898, v. 15; and LN IX, 1 (Jan 1912): 15.

[10] For example, Mission Station Reports 1899, v. 16; and Briggs, "Report of Comm of Whole on Assignment of Work," 1897, v. 19.

[11] Peoples, Nan Station Annual Report 1914, 84-l-7a.

[12] Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1910, v. 281.

[13] See Speer, Christianity and Nations, 133-134.

[14] For examples see, Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1907, v. 281; Hartzell, Lampang Station Annual Report 1914, 84-l-7a; Collins', Personal Annual Report 1916, 84-l-8b; Callender, Phrae Station Annual Report 1914, 84-l-7a; Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1906, v. 281. See also mission evaluations of the Mae Dok Daeng Church from the 1880s onwards in which years with many converts were designated "good years" and years with few or none were labelled "bad years": Martin to Mitchell, 21 July 1885, v. 5; Dodd to Mitchell, 15 Jan 1892, v. 9; and William Harris, Personal Annual Reports 1900, 1905, 1907, v. 281.

[15] L.E. Elliot-Binns, Galilean Christianity (London: SCM, 1956): 54-61.

[16] See Van Vrenken, "Siam and Laos Impressions," LN IV, 1 (Jan 1907): 18; H.S. Vincent, "Leaving Laos Land for our First Furlough," LN VI, 3 (Aug 1909): 81; Daisy Campbell, "First Impressions," LN VIII, 2 (Apr 1911): 47-49; Dodd to Mitchell, 20 Jan 1893, v. 9; Taylor to Brown, 18 July 1899, v. 15; Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1901, v. 281; Niederhauser, Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1916, 84-l-9a; and Bachtell, "Out-Village Work in Chieng Rai Province," LN XII, 1 (Jan 1915): 10-11.

[17] for an excellent description of this same type of missionary attitude in India see Hollis, Paternalism, 1962.

[18] McMullin, Lampang Station Annual Report 1916, 84-l-9a. See also Presbytery work assignments for 1900: of nine committees with a total of 31 members only six places were assigned to northern Thai (five to Kru Pannya alone). The key committee, Church Oversight, had no northern Thai members. "Assignment of Work 1900," v. 280. For other examples of the mission making church policy decisions unilaterally see Mission Annual Meeting Minutes 1901, 1903, v. 280.

[19] Callender, Lampang Station Annual Report 1911, 84-l-4a; and Freeman, Collins, & White, Mission Annual Report 1912, 84-l-5a.

[20] See R.C. Reed, History of the Presbyterian Church of the World (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1912): 2, 12, 19, 22-23, concerning Presbyterian church government from that period.

[21] Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1904, 281; LN X, 4 (Oct 1913): 92; Speer, Deputation, 109; and Briggs, "Missions Among the Laos," 272.

[22] Shields to Brown, 30 Aug 1898, v. 15; Freeman, "A Country Parish in Laos," LN III, 4 (Oct 1906): 63-65; Dodd to Brown, 23 Mar 1900, v. 16; and Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1906, v. 281.

[23] Briggs to Speer, 26 Sep 1895, v. 11.

[24] Callender, Lampang Church Annual Report 1912, 84-l-5a; Shields to Labaree, 24 June 1897, v. 13; and Briggs to Fenn, 17 Aug 1902, v. 271.

[25] LN IX, 1 (Jan 1912): 16-17. For similar statements see Park, Nan Boys' Industrial Training School Annual Report 1907, v. 281; Briggs to Brown, 15 Apr 1903, v. 272; Speer, Deputation, 110-111; and Curtis, The Laos, 326.

[26] For a few representative descriptions of the regional church structure see: Dodd to Mitchell, 15 Jan 1892, v. 9; Taylor to Dennis, 27 Jan 1896, v. 13; Shields to Brown, 17 Oct 1899, v. 15; Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1906, v. 281; Briggs, "Another Laos Convention," LN II, 4 (Oct 1905): 93-94; Palmer, "Evangelistic Work for the New Missionary," LN IV, 2 (Apr 1907): 64-68.

[27] Data collected in the file "Correspondence and Statistics, Shortening Term of Service in Laos," 1894-1896, v. 21; Harris to Brown, 20 July 1908, v. 277; and Freeman to Brown, 11 June 1920, 84-1-11c.

[28] Irwin to Brown, 20 Sep 1898, v. 15; Vincent to Brown, 13 Aug 1908, v. 277; Briggs to Brown, 20 June 1902, v. 271; Harris to Brown, 30 Aug 1905, v. 273; Freeman to Brown, 1 Nov 1907, v. 276; Briggs to Brown, 17 June 1909, v. 278; Mission Annual Report 1915, 84-1-7; and Vincent to Brown, 13 Aug 1908, v. 277.

[29] Dr. & Mrs. Denman, Personal Annual Report 1905, v. 281; Irwin, Personal Annual Report 1905, v. 281; and Brown to Laos Mission, 9 Oct 1911, APM.

[30] Callender, Lampang Station Annual Report 1911, 84-l-4a.

[31] Chiang Mat Station Annual Report 1890, v. 22; Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1907, v. 281; Thomas to Friends, 23 Feb 1897, v. 13; and Mission Bimonthly Letters, Mar 1898, v. 22.

[32] Harris to Labaree, 5 Feb 1897, v. 13.

[33] Campbell to Speer, 5 Sep 1895, v. 11.

[34] McGilvary, Half Century, 416-417; Thomas to Friends, 7 Dec 1898, v. 15; Irwin, Nan Station Annual Report 1898, v. 22; Hatch to Brown, 11 Jan 1899, v. 15; Denman to Brown, 5 Jan 1904, v. 273; Crooks to Brown, 26 Dec 1914, 84-l-5c; and Harris to Brown, 2 Jan 1917, 84-l-8c.

[35] Taylor to Brown, 5 Sep 1912, RPM. See Mission Annual Meeting Minutes 1901-1910, v. 280.

[36] Speer, Deputation, 67-68, 105.

[37] See Swanson, "Kengtung Question," 1982.

[38] Speer, Deputation, 67-68, 105.

[39] George H. Trull, "Report to the Presbyterian Board of Foriegn Missions on Visitation to Siam February 3 to 26, 1930," RPM; and Swanson, "Kengtung Question," 63-64, 75.

[40] See Trull Report above; and Hanna, Letters From Hazel, 28.

[41] Speer, Deputation, 76.

[42] Hanna, Letters from Hazel, 24-27; Thomas to Labaree, 27 Jan 1897, v. 13. For one particularly tense year, 1902, see Briggs to Brown, 20 June 1902, v. 271; Briggs to Fenn, 17 Apr 1902, v. 271; Callender to Brown, 11 Mar 1902, v. 271; and Thomas to Brown, 29 May 1902, v. 271.

[43] Brunner to Home Folks, 18 Apr 1914, in Hanna, Letters from Hazel, 19.

[44] Niederhauser, Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1916, 84-l-9a; and Bachtell, Personal Annual Report 1916, 84-l-8b.

[45] Compare Hollis, Paternalism, 45-46.

[46] Hans-Ruedi Weber, "The Younger Churches," in Stephen Charles Neill and Hans-Ruedi Weber (eds.), The Layman in Christian History (London: SCM, 1963): 347-8.

CHAPTER 5

[1] McGilvary, Half Century, 287, and see 414-415.

[2] McGilvary to Irving, 26 Apr 1883, v. 4; and McGilvary, Half Century, 257-260.

[3] McGilvary to Irving, 31 Dec 1870, v. 3; and McGilvary, Half Century, 21.

[4] Curtis, The Laos, 300-301. See also Harris, "The Educational Problem in Laos," LN V, 3 (July 1908): 74-77; and Van Vrenken, "The Girls' School in Nan," LN VIII, 4 (Oct 1911): 135-136.

[5] For examplesee, Van Vrenken, "School Notes and Impressions," LN VII, 4 (Oct 1910): 126 - 128; and White, "The Aim and Value of Mission Enterprise," LN VIII, 1 (Jan 1911): 14-17.

[6] See Thomas to Friends, 27 Oct 1897, v. 13; Gilson, "A Trip to Muang Pao, "LN V, 3 (July 1908): 82-83; Mrs. Hugh Taylor, "Thoughts and Impressions on Educational and Religious Matters," LN XI, 1 (Jan 1914): 19-21; Nan Boys' School Annual Report 1911, RPM; Park, Nan Boys' Industrial Training School Annual Report 1907, v. 281; and Freeman to Brown, 26 Dec 1898, v. 15.

[7] Van Vrenken, "School Notes and Impressions," LN VII, 4 (Oct 1910): 126-128; W.A. Briggs quoted in LN VII, 1 (Feb 1910): 16; Rev. & Mrs. Vincent, Personal Annual Report 1908, v. 281; and McGilvary to Brown, 23 Jan [l910J, v. 278.

[8] Starling, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1911, 84-l-4a.

[9] Briggs to Speer, 17 June 1895, v. 11.

[10] Beebe, Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1920, 84-l-13a.

[11] Anabelle Briggs, "The Educational Question in Chieng Rai," LN VI, 3 (Aug 1909): 71 - 73; Freeman, Collins, & White, Mission Annual Report 1912, 84-l-5a; Nan Station Annual Report 1913, 84-l-6a; and Bachtell, Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1914, 84-l-7a.

[12] See Girls' School section of Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1915, 84-l-8a.

[13] See Freeman, Mission Annual Report 1913, 84-l-6a; White, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1916, 84-l-9a; Cort to Brown, 11 Oct 1916, 84-l-8b; McMullin, Lampang Station Annual Report 1916, 84-l-9a; Niederhauser, Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1916, 84-l-9a; Hatch to Brown, 11 Jan 1899, v. 15; and Lampang Station Annual Report 1906, v. 281.

[14] Speer, Deputation, 68. Compare C.C. Zimmerman and Mrs. Geo. B. McFarland, "Extracts From Report on Siam," 11, RPM.

[15] Crooks to Brown, 28 July 1919, 84-1-10c; and Freeman, Lampang Station Annual Report 1919, 84-l-12a.

[16] Dodd to Mitchell, 30 Dec 1889, v. 7; and Dodd, Tai Race, 262-623.

[17] Dodd to Jessup, 10 Apr 1890, v. 7; and Dodd, Chiang Mat Station Annual Report 1890, v. 22.

[18] Dodd to Mitchell, 4 May 1891, v. 8; Chiang Mat Station Annual Report 1891, v. 22; and Mission Training School Annual Report 1891, v. 9.

[19] Dodd to Mitchell, 26 Jan 1891, v. 8.

[20] Dodd to Mitchell, 29 Apr 1892, and 8 July 1892, v. 9.

[21] Irwin to Speer, 15 Sep 1894, v. 11; Irwin, Training School Annual Report 1893, v. 22; and Irwin, "The Northern Laos Field," 15 Feb 1893, v. 11.

[22] Dodd to Speer, 5 Mar 1896, v. 13; Dodd to Labaree, 13 July 1896, v. 13; Dodd to Speer, 25 Mar 1896, v. 22; and Irwin, Personal Annual Report 1905, v. 281.

[23] Mission Training School Annual Report 1891, v. 9.

[24] Campbell, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1897, v. 19; Mission Bimonthly Letters, Nov 1898, v. 22; Campbell, Training School for Christian Workers Annual Report 1899, v. 22; and Mission Stations Reports 1900, v. 281.

[25] Mission Annual Meeting Minutes 1903, v. 280; Lampang Station Annual Report 1901, v. 281; Callenderto Brown, 11 Mar 1902, v. 271; and McGilvary to Brown, 28 Sep 1904, v. 273.

[26] Chiang Mai Station Annual Reports 1903, 1904, v. 281; Freeman, Mission Annual Report 1907, v. 281; and White, Mission Annual Report 1909, v. 281.

[27] See Campbell to Brown, 4 Jan 1906, and 21 June 1906, v. 274; Callender to Brown, 13 Oct 1910, v. 278; and "The Laos Mission," [l912] 84-l-5a.

[28] Freeman, Collins, & White, Mission Annual Report 1912, 84-l-5a.

[29] White, Theological Training School Annual Report 1913, 84-l-6a.

[30] Freeman, Mission Annual Report 1913, 84-l-6a; Nan Station Annual Report 1913, 84-l-6a; Chiang Mai Station Report 1914, 84-l-7a; Chiang Mai Station Report 1915, 84-l-8a; and White, Chiang Mai Station Report 1916, 84-l-9a.

[31] White, Theological School Annual Report 1917, 84-1-10a; Winella Callender, Phrae Station Annual Report 1918, 84-1-11a; White, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1918, 84-1-11a; and White, Theological School Annual Report 1918, 84-1-11a.

[32] See Siam Outlook I, 1 (July 1921): 21, 27.

[33] McFarland, Historical Sketch, 232-233.

[34] See Wakeman, "Sri Ngam Church," 14.

[35] See Maen, Apologetics, 143-148; Hughes, Christianity and Culture, 1983; and Wakeman, "Sri Ngam Church," 1984. cf. Noi Wong & Roderick Gillies, "Evangelist Noi Wong's Encounter with Some Evil Spirits," LN VI, 1 (Feb 1909): 30-32.

[36] Wilson, Mission Annual Report 1880, v. 4.

[37] McGilvary to Irving, 18 Jan 1881, v. 4; and Wilson to Irving, 1 Aug 1882, v. 4.

[38] McGilvary, Half Century, 337; Evander B. McGilvary to Mitchell, 7 Jan 1892, v. 9; Briggs to Speer, 17 June 1894, v. 11; and Peoples to Speer, 21 May 1894, v. 11.

[39] Wilson to Speer, 12 June 1894, v. 11.

[40] This discussion is based on BFM correspondence, v. 11, esp. Taylor to Speer, 14 May 1894, Phraner; et. al. to McGilvary (copy), 15 May 1894; Peoples to Speer, 21 May 1894; Wilson to Speer, 12 June 1894; Briggs to Speer, 17 June 1894; and Evander B. McGilvary to Dulles, 11 May 1894.

[41] Phraner et. al. to Board, 24 May 1894, v. 11.

[42] Gillies to Brown, 8 Oct 1909, v. 278.

[43] Taylor to Speer, 14 May 1894, v. 11.

[44] "The Laos Mission Letter for the Quarter Ending April 30, 1900," v. 11; and Briggs to Dulles, 22 Dec 1893, v. 9.

[45] Mission Annual Report 1873, v. 3; Martin to Mitchell, 20 Apr 1886, v. 5; Dodd to Mitchell, 20 Dec 1888, v. 6; Collins, Mission Annual Report 1885, v. 22.

[46] Phraner, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1893, v. 22; and Taylor, Lampang Station Annual Report 1893, v. 22.

[47] Collins, Mission Press Annual Report 1914, 84-l-7a.

[48] Mission Stations Reports 1900, v. 281.

[49] Dodd, Tai Race, 262.

[50] Freeman, Oriental Land, 160.

[51] Dodd, Chiang Rai Church Annual Report 1915, 84-l-8a; NSN XIII, 2 (May 1917): 67; Hartzell, "The Lakawn City Church," NSN XIII, 2 May 1917 : 63-67; Bachtell, "Out-Village Work in Chieng Rai Province," [l916], 84-l-9a; and Mission Press Annual Reports 1911-1920, BFM.

[52] Maen, Apologetics. 148.

CHAPTER 6

[1] Evander B. McGilvary, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1892, v.22.

[2] Nellie McGilvary, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1894, v. 22.

[3] Irwin, "The North Laos Field," 15 Feb 1893, v. 9.

[4] McGilvary, Half Century, 377-378; and Irwin to Speer, 31 May 1895, v. 11.

[5] Denman, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1895, v. 22; Campbell to Speer, 5 Sep 1895, v. 11; McGilvary, Half Century, 379; and Irwin to Speer, 14 Apr 1896, v. 13.

[6] Campbell to Speer, 5 Sep 1895, v. 11.

[7] Denman, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1895, v. 22.

[8] Irwin, Lamphun Station Annual Reports 1894, 1895, v. 22; Briggs, Lamphun Station Annual Report 1896, v. 22; Mission Bimonthly Letters, May1898, June 1899, v. 22.

[9] This narrative is based on Thomas to Friends, 1 Jan 1896, v. 13; Irwinto Speer, 21 Feb 1896, v. 13; Dodd to Speer, 5 Mar 1896, v. 13; Freeman to Speer, 14 Apr 1896, v. 13; Irwin to Speer, 14 Apr 1896, v. 13; Denman to Speer, 20 May 1896, v. 13; Dodd to Labaree, 13 July 1896, v. 13; and McFarland, Historical Sketch, 229.

[10] Dodd to Speer, 5 Mar 1896, v. 13.

[11] Speer, Deputation, 108-109.

[12] Lampang Station Annual Report 1901, v. 281. See also Briggs to Fenn, 17 Apr 1902, v. 271; and McGilvary to Brown, 28 Sep 1904, v. 273.

[13] Speer, Deputation, 109.

[14] Irwin, Lamphun Station Annual Report 1894, v. 22; McGilvary, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1896, v. 22; Mission Bimonthly Letters, Nov 1898, v. 22; and Carothers, Personal Annual Report 1909, v. 281.

[15] Mission Bimonthly Letters, June 1899, v. 22; Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1901, v. 281; and Dodd, Mission Annual Report 1908, v. 281.

[16] Lampang Station Bimonthly Letter, Feb 1897, v. 13; Curtis, Lampang Station Annual Report 1897, v. 19; and Lampang Station Annual Report 1901, v. 281.

[17] Wilson, Mission Annual Report 1897, v. 19; and Freeman, Collins, & White, Mission Annual Report 1912, 84-l-5a.

[18] Mission Bimonthly Letters, May 1898, June 1898, Nov 1898, v. 22; and Wilson, Mission Annual Report 1897, v. 19.

[19] Wilson, Mission Annual Report 1897, v. 19; Dodd, Mission Annual Report 1908, v. 281; and White, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1916, 84-l-9a.

[20] Enclosure in Irwin to Speer, 31 May 1895, v. 11; McGilvary, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1896, v. 22; Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1901, v. 281; and White, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1916, 84-l-9a.

[21] Speer, Deputation, 111-112.

[22] McGilvary, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1896, v. 22; Briggs, Lamphun Station Annual Report 1896, v. 22; and Mission Bimonthly letters, June 1899, v. 22.

[23] Speer, Deputation, 110-111.

[24] Taylor, Missionary, I, 168-173.

[25] Taken from Charles Alien dark, The Nevius Plan for Mission Work: Illustrated in Korea (Seoul: Christian Literature Society, 1937): 23, 24-41.

[26] Irwin to Speer, 21 Feb 1896, v. 13; Dodd to Speer, 5 Mar 1896, v. 13; and Dodd to Labaree, 13 July 1896, v. 13.

[27] Curtis to Labaree, 29 May 1897, v. 13; Thomas to Labaree, 28 June 1897. v. 13; Freeman to Brown, 2 Feb 1898, v. 15; Taylorto Brown, 11 July 1898. v. 15; and Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1901, v. 281.

[28] Irwin, Nan Station Annual Report 1898, v. 22; wd Smith, Siamese Gold, 109-110.

[29] Mission Annual Meeting Minutes 1903, 1905, v. 280; and Peoples to Brown, 31 Dec 1903, v. 272.

[30] Briggs to Brown, 18 Feb 1904, v. 273; and Briggs, Address to Annual Mission Meeting, Dec 1903, no. 67, v. 272.

[31] Briggs to Friends, July 1909, v. 278; Chiang Mai Station Report 1901, v. 281; Irwin to Brown, 28 July 1899, v. 15; and Irwin to Brown, 20 Aug 1904, v. 273.

[32] Irwin to Speer, 21 Feb 1896, v. 13; Harris to Speer, 20 Apr 1896, v. 13; Curtis to Brown, 21 June 1898, v. 15; Denman, Chiang Mai Station Report 1895, v. 22; Mission Bimonthly Letters, Apr 1899, v. 22; and Irwin, Phrae Station Annual Report 1904, v. 281.

[33] McGilvary, Personal Annual Report 1903, v. 281; McGilvary to Lowrie, 12 June 1880, v. 4; LN VII, 1 (Fob 1910): 10; and Smith, Siamese Gold, 120-122.

[34] Campbell, Personal Annual Report 1913, 84-l-5b.

[35] Callender, Lampang Station Annual Report 1911, 84-l-4a.

[36] Smith, Siamese Gold, 84; McFarland, Historical Sketch, 279; McGilvary, Mission Annual Report 1876, v. 3; Wilson, Mission Annual Report 1879, v. 4; McGilvary to Mitchell, 3 July 1885, and 18 Aug 1885, v. 5; Martin to Irving, 31 Aug 1885, v. 5; Taylor, Lampang Station Annual Report 1893, v. 22; and Evander B. McGilvary, Chiang Mat Station Annual Report 1892, v. 22.

[37] Dodd, Personal Annual Report 1900, v. 281.

[38] McFarland, Historical Sketch, 230; and Dodd, "Narrative of the State of Religion within the Bounds of the Presbytery of North Laos for the Year ending November 30th. 1890," v. 22. See also Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1904, v. 281; and Callender, Phrae Station Annual Report 1914, 84-l-7a.

[39] Mission Annual Report 1905, v. 281; and White, Personal Annual Report 1905, v. 281.

[40] Campbell, Personal Annual Report 1908, v. 281; LN VI, 1 (Feb 1909): 5-6; Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1904, v. 281; Chiang Mat Station Annual Report 1914, 84-l-7a.

[41] For descriptions of the work of the clergy see Mission Annual Report 1902, v. 281; Campbell, Personal Annual Report 1908, v. 281; Dodd, Mission Annual Report 1908, v. 281; Starling, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1911, 84-l-4a; Callender, Phrae Station Annual Report 1914, 84-l-7a; and White, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1916, 84-l-9a.

[42] Preston, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1917, 84-1-10a; and Preston, White, and Hatch, Mission Annual Report 1918, 84-1-11a.

[43] Mission Station Reports 1900, v. 281; Phrae Station Annual Report 1901, v. 281; Mission Annual Report 1902, v. 281; and LN I, 1 (Jan 1904): 31.

[44] LN I, 4 (Oct 1904): 92; and Irwin to Brown, 20 Aug 1904, v. 273.

[45] Irwin to Brown, 16 Jan 1905, and 3 July 1905, v. 274; LN II, 2 (Apr 1905): 8, 18; and LN II, 4 (Oct 1905): 77.

[46] Irwin to Brown, 7 Nov 1905, v. 274; and Florence B. Crooks, "An Unexpected Convention," LN III, 1 (Jan 1906): 13-15.

[47] LN III, 1 (Jan 1906): 31, 35-36.

[48] Crooks to Brown, 9 Jan 1906, v. 275; Brown to Irwin, 30 Oct 1906, v. 275; Mission Annual Meeting Minutes 1905, v. 280; and LN III, 1 (Jan 1906): 35-36.

[49] Phrae Annual Report 1906, v. 281; and Mrs. Roderick Gillies, "A Tour in Pre," LN III, 4 (Oct 1906): 69-72.

[50] Taylor to Brown, 28 Dec 1907, v. 276; Freeman, Mission Annual Report 1907, v. 281; and LN IV, 3 (July 1907): 71-72.

[51] White, Mission Annual Report 1909, v. 281; LN V, 4 (Oct 1908): 98; and LN VI, 1 (Feb 1909): 38-39.

[52] LN VII, 2 (May 1910): 34-35; "Churches of Lakawn Station," LN VII, 1 (Jan 1911): 13-14; and Callender, Lampang Station Annual Report 1911, 84-l-4a.

[53] Freeman, Collins, & White, Mission Annual Report 1912, 84-l-5a; and Gillies, "Odds and Ends from Pre," LN IX, 3 (July 1912): 99-101.

[54] Park, Phrae Station Annual Report 1915, 84-l-7a; Beebe, "Report of Pa Pung Church," 84-l-8a; and Cort, Personal Annual Report 1913, 84-l-5b.

[55] Beebe, Phrae Station Annual Report 1916, 84-l-9a; Winella Marks Callender, Phrae Station Annual Report 1918, 84-1-11a; and Freeman, Phrae Station Annual Report 1920, 84-l-13a.

[56] LN IX, 1 (Jan 1912): 5.

[57] "Twenty Years after in Pre," LN X, 3 (July 1913): 58; and Taylor to Brown, 28 Dec 1907, v. 276.

[58] For examples see Curtis, The Laos, 300-301; Freeman, Oriental Land, 167; and LN, VII, 1 (Feb 1910): 16.

CHAPTER 7

[1] Mission Station Reports 1899, v. 22; and White, Mission Annual Report 1909, v. 281.

[2] See Dodd, Tai Race, for one of the fullest expressions of the mission's dreams for expansion beyond Siam.

[3] Based on Swanson, "Kentung Question," 1982.

[4] See Peoples to Speer, 16 Aug 1894, v. 11; Briggs to Speer, 30 Aug 1894, v. 11; and Irwin to Speer, 14 Jan 1895, v. 11.

[5] Mission Annual Meeting Minutes, v. 280; and Nan Station Report in Freeman, Mission Annual Report 1907, v. 281.

[6] McGilvary to Brown, 25 Dec 1907, v. 276; and White, Mission Annual Report 1909, v. 281.

[7] Bradt, Around the World, 145-149.

[8] Mason, Chiang Rung Station Annual Report 1918, 84-1-11a.

[9] For example see LN VIII, 1 (Feb 1910): 13.

[10] Briggs to Brown, 15 Apr 1903, v. 272; and Freeman, Mission Annual Report 1907, v. 281.

[11] See Mission Annual Reports esp. 1899, 1906, 1908, and 1909.

[12] Chiang Mat Station Annual Report 1904, v. 281; 'The Presbytery of Laos," LN V, 2 (Apr 1908): 51-52; and LN V, 1 (Jan 1908): 2-3.

[13] Campbell, Chiang Mat Station Annual Report 1897, v. 31; Harris to Brown, 8 June 1898, v. 15; Briggs, "Mission Among the Laos - I," 272; and Mission Annual Meeting Minutes 1903, v. 280.

[14] Mission Annual Meeting Minutes 1906, v. 280; Taylor, Personal Annual Report 1906, v. 281; and "Presbytery of Laos," LN V, 2 (Apr 1908): 49-52.

[15] Meeting of North Laos Presbytery," LN VI, 2 (May 1909): 59 - 60; and "The Presbytery of North Laos in Session at Muang Pre," LN VII, 2 (May 1910): 46.

[16] "The Presbytery of North Laos in Session at Muang Pre," LN VII, 2 (May 1910): 45-49; Callender, "Quotations from Pre Letter," LN VII, 2 (May 1910): 49-51; Taylor, "Some Nan Touring Notes," LN VII, 4 (Oct 1910): 130-131; LN VIII, 2 (Apr 1911): 40; LN X, 3 (July 1913): 51; "Ye Editor's Corner," LN XII, 2 (Apr 1915): 31; and LN XIII, 2 (May 1917): 58-60.

[17] See LN I, 1 (Jan 1904): 9-10; Katherine Denman, "A Laos Feast of Tabernacles," LN I, 3 (July 1904): 62 - 65; Margaret Wilson, "First Christian Convention in Lakawn," LN II, 2 (Apr 1905): 24-26; Daisy B. Park, "The First Christian Convention in Nan," LN II, 3 (July 1905): 48-50; and McKean, "The Mae Dawk Dang Convention," LN IV, 2 (Apr 1907): 45-48.

[18] Palmer to Brown, 3 Aug 1908, v. 272; McKean to Brown, 30 July 1908, v. 272; and Briggs to Brown, 17 June 1909, v. 278.

[19] Wilson to Irving, 2 Dec 1867, v. 3; McGilvary to Irving, 17 Dec 1867, v. 3; McKean, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1891, v. 22; and Dodd, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1890, v. 22.

[20] LN I, 1 (Jan 1904): 4, 12-13; and "Chieng Mai Convention," LN II, 2 (Apr 1905): 30.

[21] Dodd, Mission Annual Report 1908, v. 281; and LN V, 1 (Jan 1908): 9.

[22]LN I, 1 (Jan 1904): 16-17, 18, 19; and "Teaching them to Observe all Things," LN II, 1 (Jan 1905): 23-26.

[23] "Teaching them to Observe all Things," LN II, 1 (Jan 1905): 23-26; "Our Mother Church," LN II, 2 (Apr 1905): 29; "Evangelistic Work in Chieng Rai Field," LN II, 3 (July 1905): 57-58; LN II, 3 (July 1905): 63; Campbell, "Pay Schools in Chieng Mai Station," LN III, 3 (July 1906): 24-28; LN IV, 1 (June 1907): 6; LN V, 1 (Jan 1908): 2 - 3; Mrs. Henry White, "A Day School in Laos," LN IV, 3 (July 1906): 80-82; and Mrs. J.W. McKean, "The Education of the Buddhist Boy," LN V, 3 (July 1908): 84-86.

[24] LN VI, 1 (Feb 1909): 4; and Freeman, Collins, & White, Mission Annual Report 1912, 84-l-5a.

[25] LN IV, 1 (Jan 1907): 6; and LN V, 1 (Jan 1908): 2-3.

[26] Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1901, v. 281; Briggs to Fenn, 17 Apr 1902, v. 271; Freeman to Ware, 26 Jan 1907, v. 276; Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1906, v. 281; Rev. & Mrs. Freeman, Personal Annual Report 1906, v. 281; and Dodd, Mission Annual Report 1908, v. 281.

[27] Freeman, "A Country Parish in Laos," LN III, 4 (Oct 1906): 63-65.

[28] Chiang Saen Church Annual Report 1906, v. 281; Freeman, Mission Annual Report 1907, v. 281; Dodd, Mission Annual Report 1908, v. 281; and LN XIII, 3 (July 1917): 73-74.

[29] Mission Annual Report 1902, v. 281; White, Mission Annual Report 1909, v. 281; Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1906, v. 281; and Freeman, Mission Annual Report 1907, v. 281.

[30] For example see White to Brown, 11 July 1906, v. 275; Nan Report in Mission Station Reports 1900, v. 281; and Mission Annual Report 1905, v. 281.

[31] Mission Annual Report 1902, v. 281; and Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1903, v. 281.

[32] See Swanson, "Advocate and Partner," 1982, and "This Seed," 1983 on missionary support for and participation in the process of political centralization.

[33] Denman, "Lights and Shadows of Two Days," LN II, 1 (Jan 1905): 27-30; "The Presbytery of Laos," LN V, 2 (Apr 1908): 50-51; Irwin to Brown, 7 Nov 1905, v. 274; Freeman, "Four Laos Weddings," LN I, 2 (Apr 1904): 51-52; and McGilvary, Personal Annual Report 1904, v. 281.

[34] Irwin to Brown, 7 Nov 1905, v. 274; Taylor, Missionary, I, 180- 184; Mission Annual Meeting Minutes 1907, v. 280; and LN VI, 3 (Aug 1909): 70.

[35] "With Powder and Pill," LN I, 3 (July 1904): 79-80; Campbell Personal Annual Report 1903, v. 281; "Some Things for Which to Pray," LN III, 1 (Jan 1906): 33-36; Mrs. Roderick Gillies, "A Tour in Pro," LN III, 4 (Oct 1906): 71; Mason, "Temptation Strong in Time of Sickness," LN IV, 4 (Oct 1907): 131-132; and LN IX, 3 (July 1912): 77-78.

[36] Callender to Brown, 11 Mar 1902, v. 271.

CHAPTER 8

[1] Callender to Brown, 23 Dec 1912, 84-l-3c; Siam Council Minutes, 5 July 1913, APM; "Annual Meeting of the Mission," LN XII, 1 (Jan 1915): 16-17; and Brown to North Siam Mission, 18 Mar 1915, 84-2-la.

[2] Brown to Laos Mission, 9 Nov 1912, APM; Dodd & Vincent to Board, 7 May 1913, APM; Brown to Laos Mission, 9 July 1913, APM; and Brown to Laos Mission, 15 Oct 1913, APM.

[3] Brown to Laos Mission, 16 Dec 1913, APM; Taylor to Callender, 29 July 1914, APM; Dodd & Lyon to Members of the North Siam Mission, 20 Oct 1914, APM; Crooks to Brown, 25 Jan 1915, 84-l-6c; "Evangelistic Efforts in Many Fields," LN XII, 3 (July 1915): 63;"Chieng Rung the Capital of the Sipsong Punna," LN XII, 3 (July 1915): 70-74; and "Action Regarding the Opening of Chieng Rung," LN XIII, 1 (Jan 1916): 5-8.

[4] Brown to North & South Siam Missions, 5 Jan 1917, and 17 Jan 1917, APM; Dodd, Tai Race, 182; NSN XIII, 4 (Oct 1917): 111; and Preston, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1917, 84-1-10a.

[5] Mason to Brown, 28 Aug 1918, 84-l-9c; Dodd, Tai Race, 197; and Mason, Chiang Rung Station Annual Report 1918, 84-1-1 la.

[6] LN X, 4 (Oct 1913): 81, 82; Freeman, Laos Mission Annual Report 1913, 84-l-6a; Dodd, Chiang Rung Station Annual Report 1919, 84-l-12a; Callenders, Personal Annual Report 1920, 84-l-12b.

[7] Brown to Missions, 18 May 1911, APM.

[8] Brown to Laos Mission, 20 May 1913, APM.

[9] Brown to Laos Mission, 16 Sep 1913, APM; NSN XIV, 1 (Jan 1917): 6; Crooks to Brown, 28 July 1919, 84-1-10c; and Crooks to Brown, 6 Apr 1920, 84-1-11c.

[10] Brown to Laos Mission, 7 Apr 1910, APM.

[11] Brown to North & South Siam Missions, 9 Mar 1920, APM; and Dodd to Brown, 5 July 1916, 84-l-7c.

[12] Hatch, Personal Annual Report 1917, 84-l-9b.

[13] Collins to Brown, 13 Dec 1911, 84-l-2c; and Collins, Personal Annual Report 1911, 84-l-3b.

[14] Freeman, Collins, & White, Mission Annual Report 1912, 84-l-5a; and McKean, Chiang Mat Station Medical Annual Report 1912, 84-l-4b.

[15] Freeman, Mission Annual Report 1913, 84-l-6a; Callenderto Brown, 24 Oct 1913, 84-l-4c; Campbell to Friends, 8 May 1913, 84-l-4c; and Campbell, Personal Annual Report 1913, 84-l-5b.

[16] Brown to Laos Mission, 10 June 1912, and 20 June 1912, APM.

[17] Briggs to Brown, 5 Sep 1912, 84-l-3c.

[18] Brown to Laos Mission, 16 Sep 1913, APM. See Brown to Laos Mission, 10 Oct 1912, 14 Apr 1913, and 24 June 1913, APM.

[19] Collins, "Great Awakening Within the Bounds of the Bethlehem Church," LN IX, 2 (Apr 1912): 60-65; Collins, "Large Ingathering in the Bethlehem Church," LN IX, 3 (July 1912): 88-90; Gillies, "A Sunday at 'Baw Sang' The Village where they built the Well," LN X, 3 (July 1913): 70-72; LN X, 3 (July 1913): 53; Van Vrenken to Brown, 5 Mar 1914, 84-l-5c; and LN X, 3 (July 1913): 41-42.

[20] Harris, Personal Annual Report 1916, 84-l-8b. See also "Ye Editor's Corner," LN XII, 2 (Apr 1915): 31; White, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1916, 84-l-9a; Cort to Brown, 11 Oct 1916, 84-l-8b; Mason to Brown, 30 Sep 1916, 84-l-8b; and Freeman, Mission Annual Report 1913, 84-l-6a.

[21] Callenders' Personal Annual Report 1912, 84-l-4b; Callender to Brown, 1 Feb 1912, 84-l-3c; and Starling, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1911, 84-l-4a.

[22] Collins, Personal Annual Reports 1912, 1913, and 1914, BFM.

[23] See Smith, Siamese Gold, 142, 219, 228; Mission Annual Statistical Report 1915, 84-2-6.

[24] Hughes, Proclamation and Response, 22ff.

[25] Bachtell, Personal Annual Report 1915, 84-l-6b.

[26] Freeman, Personal Annual Report 1911, 84-l-3b; Crooks', Personal Annual Report 1912, 84-l-4b; and Hartzells, Personal Annual Report 1915, 84-l-7b.

[27] "Evangelistic Efforts in Many Fields," LN XII, 3 (July 1915): 67-69; Whites, Personal Annual Report 1911, 84-l-3b; "Personal and Otherwise," LN XII, 3 (July 1916): 70; "Personal and Otherwise," LN XII, 2 (Apr 1916): 39; Niederhauser, Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1916, 84-l-9a; White, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1918, 84-1-1 la; and Beebe, Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1920, 84-l-13a.

[28] Briggs, Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1911, 84-l-4a.

[29] Dunbar, "ABS History," 1, 23-27; Swanson, "This Seed," 15, 25; Callenderto Brown, 13 Feb 1912, 84-l-3c; Campbell, Personal Annual Report 1914, 84-l-6b; Bachtells, Personal Annual Report 1918, 84-1-10a; and Beebe, Personal Annual Report 1919, 84-1-11b.

[30] Renard, "Kariang," 147; Hovemyr, "Apropos," 1983; and White, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1918, 84-1-1 la.

[31] Freemans, Personal Annual Report 1914, 84-l-6b; "During the Hot Season," LN XII, 3 (July 1915): 60; Freeman to Brown, 19 Mar 1914, and 13 July 1914, 84-l-5c; and NSN XIV, 2 (May 1918): 39.

[32] Hartzell, "Evangelistic Touring in Lakawn Province," LN XII, 3 (July 1916): 79-80; and Hartzells, Personal Annual Report 1916, 84-l-8b.

[33] Taylor, Lampang Station Annual Report 1893, v. 22; Freeman to Ware (copy), 20 Sep 1907, v. 276; and LN V, 3 (July 1908): 64-65.

[34] Freeman, Collins, & White, Mission Annual Report 1912, 84-l-5a; Crooks, Lampang Station Annual Report 1913, 84-l-6a; Freeman, "The Exceptional Population of Northern Siam," LN XI, 3 (July 1914): 82-83; and "Personal and Otherwise," LN XI, 3 (July 1914): 76.

[35] Freeman, "The Exceptional Population of Northern Siam," LN XI, 3 (July 1914): 82-83; Hartzell, Larnpang Station Annual Report 1914, 84-l-7a; Mason, "The Chieng Mai Market Preaching Hall," LN XI, 3 (July1914): 95-96; and "Evangelistic Efforts in Many Fields," LN XII, 3 (July1915): 66-67.

[36] Marie Park, "Phrae Station Annual Report 1915, 84-l-7a; Hartzell to Speer, 23 Aug 1916, 84-l-7c; Taylor to Speer, 1 July 1915, 84-l-6c; and Freeman to Trull (copy), 23 May 1919, 84-1-10c.

[37] Freemans, Personal Annual Report 1904, v. 281; Hansen, "Work for the Native Women and children at Lakawn Laos Siam," 1907, v. 281; Dodd, Mission Annual Report 1908, v. 281; and LN IX, 1 (Jan 1912): 13,

[38] "Woman's Work for Women in North Siam," LN XIII, 1 (Jan 1916): 8-9; Beebe, Phrae Station Annual Report 1916, 84-l-9a; Cole, "Far Echoes of the Annual Meeting of the North Siam Mission," LN XII, 2 (Apr 1916): 49; "Personal and Otherwise," XII, 3 (July 1916): 59-60; NSN XIII, 2 (May 1917): 39; Starling, Nan Station Annual Report 1917, 84-1-10a; and Hartzells, Personal Annual Report 1916, 84-l-8b.

[39] Lampang Station Annual Report 1918, 84-1-11a; "Personal and Otherwise," LN XII, 4 (Oct 1916): 95.

[40] Freeman, Collins, & White, Mission Annual Report 1912, 84-l-5a.

[41] Collins, Personal Annual Report 1912, 84-l-4b.

[42] Starling, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1911, 84-l-4a; Callender, Phrae Station Annual Report 1914, 84-l-7a; and NSN XIV, 2 (May 1918): 58.

[43] Starling, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1911, 84-l-4a; Preston, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1917, 84-1-10a; and Campbell, Personal Annual Report 1918, 84-1-10a.

[44] Starling, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1911, 84-l-4a; Callender, "Pre and Lakawn Notes," LN VIII, 3 (July 1911): 91-92; Callender, Lampang Station Annual Report 1911, 84-l-4a; Collins, Personal Annual Report 1912, 84-l-4b; Callender, Phrae Station Report 1914, 84-l-7a; Preston, Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1917, 84-1-10a; and Harris, Personal Annual Report 1916, 84-l-8b.

[45] "The Presbytery of North Siam," LN XII, 3 (July 1915): 79; "Personal and Otherwise," LN XII, 4 (Oct 1916): 89; and NSN XIII, 3 (July 1917): 72.

[46] Chiang Mai Station Annual Report 1915, 84-l-8a; and Campbell, Personal Annual Report 1917, 84-l-9b.

[47] Starling, Nan Station Annual Report 1917, 84-1-10a; LN IX, 1 (Jan 1912): 6; Beach, Nan Station Annual Report 1915, 84-l-8a; and NSN XIV, 1 (Jan 1918): 23.

[48] Dodd, Chiang Rai Church Annual Report 1915, 84-l-8a; Niederhauser, Chiang Rai Station Annual Report 1916, 84-l-9a; Dodd, Personal Annual Report 1915, 84-l-7b; Briggs Personal Annual Report 1916, 84-l-8b; and Phrae Station Annual Report 1919, 84-l-12a.

[49] Callender, "Pro and Lakawn Notes," LN VIII, 3 (July 1911): 91 - 92; Hartzell, Lampang Station Annual Report 1914, 84-l-7a; Hartzell to Speer 23 Aug 1916, 84-l-7c; "Personal and Otherwise," LN XII, 2 (Apr 1916): 37; and Freeman, Lampang Station Annual Report 1919, 84-l-12a.

[50] Gillies', Personal Annual Report 1920, 84-l-12b; Bachtell, "Out Village Work in Chiang Rai Province," LN XII, 1 (Jan 1915): 8-11.

[51] White, Chiang Mai Station Report 1918, 84-1-11a; Bachtell, Personal Annual Report 1915, 84-l-7b; NSN XIII, 4 (Oct 1917): 125-126; Gillies, "Conferences of Elders and Christian Workers," NSN XIII, 4 (Oct 1917): 128-130.

[52] McMullin, Lampang Station Annual Report 1911, 84-l-9a; Beebe, Phrae Station Annual Report 1916, 84-l-9a; LN XII, 2 (Apr 1916): 45; and Gillies to Brown, 16 July 1919, 84-1-10c.

[53] Brown to North and South Siam Missions, 8 Nov 1918, APM.

[54] Gillies to Brown, 16 July 1919, 84-1-10c; Campbells, Personal Annual Report 1919, 84-1-11b; Gillies', Personal Annual Report 1919, 84-1-11b; and Preston to Trull, 13 Oct 1919, 84-1-10c.

[55] Smith, Siamese Gold, 123-124.

CHAPTER 9

[1] Brown to Siam and Laos Missions, 25 Nov 1910, APM; Cooper to Callender, 12 Oct 1911, APM; Briggsto Brown, 9 Nov 1911, 84-l-2c; Joint Conference Minutes, 5 July 1913, and 10 Oct 1913, APM; and Brown to Laos Mission, 19 May 1914, APM.

[2] Freeman to Brown, 1 July 1915, 84-l-6c; Hartzell to Speer, 22 Sep 1915, 84-l-6c; Briggs to Brown, 9 Nov 1911, 84-l-2c; and Briggs to Speer, 17 June 1915, and 26 July 1915, 84-l-6c.

[3] Crooks to Day, 20 Apr 1918, 84-l-9c.

[4] Crooks to Brown, 28 July 1919, 84-1-10c; Freeman to Brown, 16 July 1919, 84-1-10c; and Crooks to Brown, 6 Apr 1920, 84-1-11c.

[5] Brown to North and South Siam Missions, 9 Mar 1920, APM.

[6] Brown to North and South Siam Missions, 9 Mar 1920, APM.

[7] Eakin, McFarland, & Pluang, "Report of the Survey Committee," Oct 1934, APM.

[8] See "Findings of the Bangkok Conference called by John R. Mott," (Bangkok: Bangkok Times Press, 1929); George H. Trull, "Report of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions on Visitation to Siam February 3 to 26, 1930," RPM; C.C. Zimmerman and Mrs. George B. McFarland, "Extracts From Report on Siam," 1931, RPM; and "Statements of Aims and Objects," National Christian Council Meeting Minutes 1940 (Bangkok: typescript, 1940): 5-7.

[9] George H. Trull, "Report to the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions on Visitation to Siam February 3 to 26, 1930," RPM.

[10] Brian Morgan, "A Brief Description of C.C. T. Rural Congregational Life," (Chiang Mat: typescript, 1979).

[11] Briggs to Speer, 26 July 1915, 84-l-5c.


2004 Intro1984 IntroChapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9AppendicesBibliographyEnd Notes


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