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Orientalism: A Bibliography


The purpose of this bibliography is to provide a useful list of sources concerning the concept of orientalism, as developed most notably by Edward W. Said, and the scholarly debate on that concept. Although the distinction between orientalism and post-colonialism is often difficult to make, the bibliography generally excludes the larger literature on post-colonialism except as it is directly relevant to the debate on orientalism. This bibliography was originally posted on herbswanson.com in September 2004 and was last updated in July 2015.

Books and Articles


Abdul-Masi. “Orientalism in Christian Theology.” In Christians and the Middle East Conflict. Edited Paul S. Rowe, John H. A. Dyck and Jens Zimmermann, 44-52. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Abu-lughod, Lila. "Orientalism and Middle East Feminist Studies." Feminist Studies 27, 1 (Spring 2001): 101-113.

Ackerman, Gerald. American Orientalists. Paris: Art Creation Realisation, 1994.

Adelson, Roger. London and the Invention of the Middle East. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1995.

Adnan-Adivar, Abdülhak. “A Turkish Account of Orientalism.” Muslim World 43 (1953): 261–282.

Ahmad, Aijaz. "Between Orientalism and Historicism." Studies in History 7, 1 (1991): 135-163.

__________. "Orientalism and After. " In Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader. Edited by Laura Chrisman and Williams Patrick, 162-171. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1994.

__________. In Theory: Classes, Nations, Literatures. London: Verso, 1992.

Al-i Ahmad, Jala, and Hamad Algar, eds. Occidentosis: A Plague from the West. Berkeley, California: Mizen Press, 1984.

Alcoff, Linda. "The Problem of Speaking for Others." Cultural Critique 20 (Winter 1991-1992): 5-32.

Alloula, Malek. The Colonial Harem. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1986.

Almond, Ian. The New Orientalists: Postmodern Representations of Islam from Foucault to Baudrillard. London: I. B. Tauris, 2007.

Almond, Philip. The British Discovery of Buddhism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Ansell-Pearson, Keith, ed. Cultural Readings of Imperialism: Edward Said and the Gravity of History. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.

App, Urs. The Birth of Orientalism: Encounters with Asia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.

Aruri, Naseer Hasan and Muhammad A. Shuraydi. Revising Culture, Reinventing Peace: The Influence of Edward W. Said. New York: Olive Branch Press. 2001.

Ashcroft, Bill. "Representation and Its Discontents: Orientalism, Islam and the Palestinian Crisis." Religion 34 (2004): 113-121.

Ashcroft, Bill and Pal Ahluwalia. Edward Said. London: Routledge, 2001.

al-Azmeh, Aziz. Islams and Modernities. London: Verso, 1993.

Axelrod, Paul, and Fuerch, Michelle A. “Portuguese Orientalism and the Making of the Village Communities of Goa.” Ethnohistory 45, 3 (Summer 1998): 439-476.


Bagchi, Kaushik. "An Orientalist in the Orient: Richard Garbe's Indian Journey, 1885-86." Journal of World History 14, 3 (September 2003): 281-325.

Baki´c-Hayden, Milica. "Nesting Orientalisms: The Case of Former Yugoslavia." Slavic Review 54, 4 (Winter 1995): 917-931.

Balagangadhara, S. N. "Orientalism, Postcolonialism and the ‘Construction’ of Religion." In Rethinking Religion in India. Edited by Esther Bloch, Marianne Keppens, and Rajaram Hegde, 216-262. London and New York: Routledge, 2010.

Balagangadhara, S. N, and Marianne Keppens. "Reconceptualizing the Postcolonial Project: Beyond the Strictures and Structures of Orientalism." Interventions 11, 1 (2009): 50-68.

Ballantyne, Tony. Orientalism and Race: Aryanism in the British Empire. Palgrave, 2002.

Ballaster, Ros. Fabulous Orients: Fictions of the East in England, 1662-1785. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Barkawi, Tarak and Keith Stanski, eds. Orientalism and War. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.

Bartholomeusz, Tessa. “Spiritual Wealth and Neo-Orientalism.” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 35, 1 (Winter 1998): 19-32.

Bar-Yosef, Eitan. The Holy Land in English Culture 1799-1917: Palestine and the Question of Orientalism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2005.

Beckett, Katharine Scarfe. Anglo-Saxon Perceptions of the Islamic World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Behdad, Ali. Belated Travellers: Orientalism in the Age of Colonial Dissolution. Cork: Cork University Press, 1994.

Benjamin, Roger. Orientalist Aesthetics: Art, Colonialism, and French North Africa, 1880-1930. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2003.

Bernstein, Matthew and Gaylyn Studlar, eds. Visions of the East: Orientalism in Film. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1997.

Bhatnagar, Rashmi. "Uses and Limits of Foucault: a Study of the Theme of Origins in Edward Said's Orientalism." Social Scientist/Trivandum 158 (July 1986): 3-22.

Bhattacharya, Nandini. "Maternal Plots, Colonial Fictions: Colonial Pedagogy in Mary Martha Sherwood's Children's Stories." Nineteenth-Century Studies 23 (2001): 381-415.

Bilgin, Pinar. “Is the ‘Orientalist’ Past the Future of Middle East Studies?” Third World Quarterly 25, 2, (2004): 423–433.

Bisaha, Nancy. Creating East and West: Renaissance Humanists and the Ottoman Turks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

Boer, Inge E, ed. After Orientalism: Critical Entanglements, Productive Looks. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2003.

Bohrer, Frederick N. Orientalism and Visual Culture: Imagining Mesopotamia in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Borup, Jorn. “Zen and the Art of Inverting Orientalism: Buddhism, Religious Studies and Interrelated Networks.” In New Approaches to the Study of Religion, Volume I: Regional, Critical, and Historical Approaches. Edited by Peter Antes, Armin W. Geertz, and Randi R. Warne, 451-487. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2004.

Bové, Paul A., ed. Edward Said and the Work of the Critic: Speaking Truth to Power. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2000.

__________. "Hope and Reconciliation: A Review of Edward W. Said." Boundary 20, 2 (Summer 1993):266-282.

Boyarin, Daniel and Jonathon Boyarin. "Toward a Dialogue with Edward Said." Critical Inquiry 15 (Spring 1989): 626-633.

Brantlinger, Patrick. "Nations and Novels: Disraeli, George Eliot and Orientalism. Victorian Studies 35 (1992): 255-275.

__________. Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism 1830-1914. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1990.

Breckenridge, Carol A. and Peter van der Veer, eds. Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament: Perspectives on South Asia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993.

Brunotte, Ulrike, Anna-Dorothea Ludewig, and Axel Stähler, eds. Orientalism, Gender, and the Jews: Literary and Artistic Transformations of European National Discourses. Berlin: De Gruyter, Oldenbourg, [2015].

Bulliet, Richard W. “Orientalism and Medieval Islamic Studies.” In The Past and Future of Medieval Studies. Edited by John Van Engen, 94–104. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994.


Cain, William E. "Reviewing the State of Criticism, III: Edward Said. Orientalism." In The Crisis in Criticism: Theory, Literature, and Reform in English Studies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Unviersity Press, 1984.

Callaghan, Clare. "Selected Bibliography of Work about and of Edward Said's Texts." CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 5, 4 (March 2003). Available online at the CLCWeb website (here).

Camayd-Freixas, Erik, ed. Orientalism and Identity in Latin America: Fashioning Self and Other from the (post)Colonial Margin. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press, 2013.

Cannadine, David. Ornamentalism: How the British Saw Their Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002

Cassels, Nancy G., ed. Orientalism, Evangelicalism and the Military Cantonment in Early Nineteenth-Century India: A Historical Overview. Lewistown: Edwin Mellon Press, 1991.

Castronovo, Russ. "Who Wants Interdisciplinary Turf Anyway?" Nineteenth-Century Studies 19 (1995): 85-88.

Chan, Adrian. Orientalism in Sinology. Palo Alto, California: Academic Press, 2009.

Chan, Christine. "Beyond Colonization, Commodification, and Reclamation: Recognizing and Retheorizing the Role of Religion in Hula." Pomona Senior Theses, Paper 3, 2011.

Chaudhuri, Nupur, and Margaret. Strobel, eds. Western Women and Imperialism: Complicity and Resistance. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1992.

Clarke, J. J. Orientalism Enlightenment: the Encounter between Asia and Western Thought. London: Routledge, 1997.

Clifford, James. "On Orientalism." In The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth-Century Ethnography, Literature, and Art. Cambridge, Massachussetts: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Codwell, J. F. and D. S. Macleod. Orientalism Transposed: the Impact of the Colonies on British Culture. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 1998.

Cohen, Warren I., ed. Reflections on Orientalism. East Lansing, Michigan: Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University, 1983.

Conant, Martha Pike. The Oriental Tale in England in the Eighteenth Century. New York: Octagon Books, 1966.

Coronil, Fernando. “Beyond Occidentalism: Toward Nonimperial Geohistorical Categories.” Cultural Anthropology 11, 1 (February 1996): 51–87.

Costaa, Janeen Arnold. "Paradisal Discourse: A Critical Analysis of Marketing and Consuming Hawaii." Consumption Markets & Culture 1, 4 (1998): 303-346.

Crawley, William. "Sir William Jones: A Vision of Orientalism." Asian Affairs 27, 2 (June 1996): 163–176.

Crinson, Mark. Empire Building: Orientalism and Victorian Architecture. London: Routledge, 1996.

Currie, Kate. Beyond Orientalism: An Exlporation of Some Recent Themes in Indian History and Society. Calcutta: K. P. Bagchi & Company, 1996.

Curthoys, Ned and Debjani Ganguly. Edward Said: The Legacy of a Public Intellectual. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. 2007


Dabashi, Hamid. Post-Orientalism: Knowledge and Power in Time of Terror. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2009.

Dahab, F. Elizabeth. "On Edward Said, Scholar and Public Intellectual." CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 5, 4 (March 2003). Available online at the CLCWeb website (here).

Dahl, Darren E. “Criticizing ‘Secular Criticism’: Reading Religion in Edward Said and Kathryn Tanner.” Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses 31, 3-4 (September 2002): 59-371.

Dalby, Michael. "Nocturnal Labors in the Light of Day." Journal of Asian Studies 39, 3 (May 1980): 485-493.

Dallmayr, Fred. Beyond Orientalism: Essays on Cross-Cultural Encounter. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1996.

__________. "The Politics of Nonidentity: Adorno, Postmodernism—and Edward Said." Political Theory 25, 1 (February 1997): 33-56.

al-Da'mi, Muhammed A. "Orientalism and Arab-Islamic History: an Inquiry into the Orientalists' Motives and Compulsions" Arab Studies Quarterly 20, 4 (Fall 1998): 1-11.

Daniel, Norman. Islam and the West. Edinburgh: University Press, 1960. New ed. Oxford: One World, 2009.

Davies, Kristian. The Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India. New York: Laynfaroh, 2005.

Denny, Walter B. "Orientalism in European Art." The Muslim World 73, 3-4 (July-October 1983): 262-277.

Dew, Nicholas. Orientalism in Louis XIV's France. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Dirlik, Arif. "Chinese History and the Question of Orientalism." History and Theory 35, 4 (December 1996): 96-118.

Dobie, Madeleine. Foreign Bodies: Gender, Language, and Culture in French Orientalism. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2001.

Doniger, Wendy. “Presidential Address: ‘I have Scinde’: Flogging a Dead (White Male Orientalist) Horse.” The Journal of Asian Studies 58, 4 (November 1999): 940–960.

Dossa, Shiraz. “Political Philosophy and Orientalism: The Classical Origins of a Discourse.” Alternatives 12, 3 (July 1987): 343–357.

Driver, Felix. Geography Militant: Cultures of Exploration and Empire. Oxford and Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell, 2001.

E - F

Edwards, Holly, ed. Noble Dreams, Wicked Pleasures: Orientalism in America, 1870-1930. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Elmarsafy, Ziad, Anna Bernard, and David Attwell, eds. Debating Orientalism. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, England and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Esonwanne, Uzoma. "Critique and Extension: Said and Freud." Research in African Literatures 36, 3 (Fall 2005): 98-111.

Foltz, Richard. "Muslim 'Orientalism' in Medieval Travel Accounts of India." Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses 37, 1 (March 2008): 81-95.

Fox, Richard G. "East of Said." In Edward Said: A Critical Reader. Edited by Michael Sprinker, 144-146. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.


Gabrieli, Francesco. “Apology for Orientalism.” Diogenes 13, 50 (June 1965): 128-136. Also in Orientalism: A Reader. Edited by A. L. Macfie, 79-85. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000.

Gallagher, Nancy Elizabeth, ed. Approaches to the History of the Middle East: Interviews with Leading Middle East Historians. Reading, United Kingdom: Ithaca Press, 1994.

Ganim, John M. "Medievalism and Orientalism at the World's Fairs." Studia Anglica Posnaniensia: International Review of English Studies 38 (Mid-Summer 2002): 179-190.

Gellner, E. "In Defence of Orientalism." Sociology 14, 2 (1980): 295-300.

Gemie, Sharif. "France, Orientalism and Algeria: 54 Articles from the Revue des Deux Mondes." Journal of Algerian Studies 3 (1998): 48-70.

Gewertz, Deborah and Frederick Errington. “We Think, Therefore They Are? On Occidentalizing the World.” Anthropological Quarterly 64, 2 (April 1991): 80– 91.

Ghazoul, Ferial J., ed. Edward Said and Critical Decolonization. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2007.

__________. "Orientalism: Clearing the Way for Cultural Dialogue." Religion 34 (2004): 123-127.

Gifford, James. "Reading Orientalism and the Crisis of Epistemology in the Novels of Lawrence Durrell." CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 1, 2 (June 1999). Available online at the CLCWeb website (here).

Gordon, David C. "Orientalism." Antioch Review 40, 1 (Winter 1982):104-112.

Graf, Arndt, Schirin Fathi, and Paul Ludwig. Orientalism and Conspiracy: Politics and Conspiracy Theory in the Islamic World. London: I.B. Tauris, 2011.

Griffin, Robert J. "Ideology and Misrepresentation: a Response to Edward Said." Critical Inquiry 15 (Spring 1989): 611-625.


Hadidi, Sobhi. "The 1994 Paris Interview with Edward Said." JUSOOR 5/6 (n.d.).

Haggis, Jane. "Gendering colonialism or colonising gender? Recent Women’s Studies approaches to white women and the history of British colonialism." Women’s Studies International Forum 13 (1990): 105–115.

Halliday, F. "Orientalism and Its Critics." British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 20, 2 (1993): 145-163.

Hamilton, Alistair, and Francis Richard. André Du Ryer and Oriental Studies in Seventeenth-Century France. London: University of Oxford Press, 2004.

Harlow, Barbara and Mia Carter, eds. Imperialism & Orientalism: a Documentary Sourcebook. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1999.

Harris, W. V. Rethinking the Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Harrison, Rachel V. and Peter A. Jackson, eds. The Ambiguous Allure of the West: Traces of the Colonial in Thailand. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010.

Hart, William D. Edward Said and the Religious Effects of Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Hedges, Paul. "Post-Colonialism, Orientalism, and Understanding: Religious Studies and the Christian Missionary Imperative." Journal of Religious History 32, 1 (March 2008): 55-75.

Heehs, Peter. “Shades of Orientalism: Paradoxes and Problems in Indian Historiography.” History and Theory 42, 2 (May 2003: 169-195.

Higgins, Iain Macleod. "Shades of the East: Orientalism, Religion, and Nation in Late Medieval Scottish Literature." Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 38, 2 (Spring 2008): 197-228.

Hildreth, Martha L. "Lamentations on Reality: A Response to John M. MacKenzie's 'Edward Said and the Historians.'" Nineteenth-Century Studies 19 (1995): 65-73.

Hodkinson, James R. and John Walker; with Shaswati Mazumdar and Johannes Feichtinger, eds. Deploying Orientalism in Culture and Hstory: from Germany to Central and Eastern Europe. Rochester, New York: Camden House, 2013.

Hoeveler, Diane Long, and Jeffrey Cass. Interrogating Orientalism. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 2006.

Hong, Fan. Sport, Nationalism and Orientalism : the Asian Games. New York: Routledge, 2007.

Howes, Craig. "Hawaii Through Western Eyes: Orientalism and Historical Fiction for Children." The Lion and the Unicorn 11, 1 ( June 1987): 68-87.

Huggan, Graham. "(Not) Reading Orientalism." Research in African Literatures 36, 3 (Fall 2005): 124-136.

Hughes, Aaron W. Situating Islam: The Past and Future of an Academic discipline. London: Equinox, 2007.

Hussein, Abdirahman A. Edward Said: Criticism and Society. London: Verso, 2002.


Inden, Ronald. Imagining India. Oxford: Blackwell, 1990.

__________. "Orientalist Constructions of India." Modern Asian Studies 20, 3 (July 1986): 401-446.

Ingleby, Jonathan. "The Involvement of Christian Missions in Education: Colonial Ploy or Commitment to the Poor; Historical Resources in the Contemporary Debate." Journal of the Henry Martyn Institute 18, 2 (July-December 1999): 48—61.

Irwin, Robert. Dangerous Knowledge: Orientalism and Its Discontents. New York: The Overlook Press, Peter Mayer Publishers, Inc., 2006.

__________. For Lust of Knowing: The Orientalists and Their Enemies. London: Allen Lane, 2006.

Iwamura, Jane Naomi. "The Oriental Monk in American Popular Culture." In Religion and Popular Culture in America, Rev. Ed. Edited by Bruce Forbes and Jeffrey Mahan, 25-43. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2005.


Jameelah, Maryam. Islam and Orientalism. Lahore, Pakistan: Mohammad Yusuf Khan & Sons, 1981.

Jansson, David R. "Internal Orientalism in America: W.J. Cash’s The Mind of the South and the Spatial Construction of American National Identity." Political Geography 22 (2003): 293–316.

Jersild, Austin. Orientalism and Empire: North Caucasus Mountain Peoples and the Georgian Frontier, 1845–1917. Montreal: McGill–Queen's University Press, 2002.

Jivraj, Suhraiya, and Didi Herman. "'It is Difficult for a White Judge to Understand': Orientalism, Racialisation, and Christianity in English Child Welfare Cases." Child and Family Law Quarterly 21, 3 (2009): 283-308.

Johnson, Christopher D. L. “’He Has Made the Dry Bones Live’: Orientalism’s Attempted Resuscitation of Eastern Christianity.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 82, 3 (2014):811-840.

Jones, David Martin. The Image of China in Western Social and Political Thought. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, England: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001.

Jouhki, Jukka. "Orientalism and India." J@rgonia 4, 8 (2006).

Jun, Helen H., “Black Orientalism: Nineteenth-Century Narratives of Race and U.S. Citizenship.” American Quarterly, 58, 4 (December 2006): 1047–66.

__________. Virtual Orientalisms: Asian Religions and American Popular Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Jung, Dietrich. Orientalists, Islamists and the Global Public Sphere: A Genealogy of the Modern Essentialist Image of Islam. Sheffield, United Kingdom: Equinox Publishing, 2011.


Kabbani, Rana. Europe's Myths of the Orient. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Kahf, Mohja. Western Representations of the Muslim Woman: From Termagant to Odalisque. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1999.

Kalmar, Ivan Davidson. Early Orientalism: Imagined Islam and the Notion of Sublime Power. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Kalmar, Ivan Davidson, and Derek J Penslar. Orientalism and the Jews. Waltham, Massachusetts: Brandeis University Press, 2005.

Kaplan Robert D. The Arabists: The Romance of an American Elite. New York, Free Press, 1993.

Kapp, Robert A. "Introduction to Review Symposium of Edward Said's Orientalism." Journal of Asian Studies 39, 3 (May 1980):481-484.

Karezyńska, Elisa. "Orientalism as a Sign of Provincialism." Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 100, 1 (2012):177-195.

Kemper, Michael, and Artemy M. Kalinovsky. Reassessing Orientalism: iInterlocking Orientologies During the Cold War. London: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, 2015.

Kennedy, Valerie. Edward Said: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000.

Kerr, Malcolm H., ed. Islamic Studies: A Tradition and Its Problems. Malibu, California: Undena, 1980.

Khalaf, Samir. Protestant Missionaries in the Levant: Ungodly Puritans, 1820-1860. London, New York: Routledge, 2012.

Khalifa, Mohammad. The Sublime Qur'ān and Orientalism. New York: Longman, 1983.

King, Homay. Lost in Translation: Orientalism, Cinema, and the Enigmatic Signifier. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press Books, 2010.

King, Richard. Orientalism and Religion: Postcolonial Theory, India and 'the Mystic East'. London: Routledge, 1999.

Klein, Christina. Cold War Orientalism: Asia in the Middlebrow Imagination, 1945-1961. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2003.

Knight, Diana. "Barthes and Orientalism." New Literary History 24, 3 (Summer 1993):617-633.

Kontje, Todd. German Orientalisms. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2004.

Kopf, David. British Orientalism and the Bengal Renaissance: The Dynamics of Indian Modernization, 1773-1835. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1969.

__________. "European Enlightenment, Hindu Renaissance and the Enrichment of the Human Spirit: A History of Historical Writings on British Orientalism." In Orientalism, Evangelicalism and the Military Cantonment in Early Nineteenth-Century India: A Historiographical Overview. Edited by Nancy G. Cassels, 19-52. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 1991.

__________. "Hermeneutics versus History." Journal of Asian Studies 39, 3 (May 1980): 495-506.

__________. "A Macrohistoriographical Essay on the Idea of East and West from Herodotus to Edward Said." Comparative Civiiizations Review 15 (1986): 22-42.

Korang, Kwaku Larbi. "A Man for All Seasons and Climes? Reading Edward Said from and for Our African Place." Research in African Literatures 36, 3 (Fall 2005): 23-51.

Krisjansen, Ivan. "Australian Orientalism and Liberal Governance: Asian Labour in South Australia and the Northern Territory, 1890s." Labour History 80 (May 2001): 173-190.

Kuklick, Bruce. Puritans in Babylon: The Ancient Near East and American Intellectual Life, 1880-1930. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Kushigian, Julia Alexis. "Three Versions of Orientalism in Contemporary Latin American Literature: Sarduy, Borges and Paz." Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1984.


Laffan, Michael. The Makings of Indonesian Islam: Orientalism and the Narration of a Sufi Past. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

Lee, Anthony W. Picturing Chinatown: Art and Orientalism in San Francisco. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2001.

Lennon, Joseph. Irish Orientalism: A Literary and Intellectual History. Syracuse, New York: University of Syracuse Press, 2004.

Lewis, Bernard. "Islam." In Orientalism & History. Edited by Denis Sinor, 16-34. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1970.

__________. Islam and the West. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

__________. "Orientalism: An Exchange." New York Review of Books 29, 13 (August 12, 1982):46-48.

__________. "The Question of Orientalism." New York Review of Books 29, 11 (June 24, 1982): 49-56.

__________. "The Question of Orientalism." In Orientalism: A Reader. Edited by A. L. Macfie, 249-270. New York: New York University Press, 2000.

__________. "Reply to Said’s Letter." New York Review of Books. 12 August 1982.

Lewis, Reina. Gendering Orientalism: Race, Femininity and Representation. London: Routledge, 1996.

__________. Rethinking Orientalism: Women, Travel and the Ottoman Harem. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2004.

Little, Donald P. "Three Arab Critiques of Orientalism." The Muslim World 69, 2 (April 1979): 110-131.

Little, Douglas. American Orientalism: The United States and the Middle East since 1945. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Lockman, Zachary. Contending Visions of the Middle East: The History and Politics of Orientalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Lodge, David, and Nigel Wood. "Edward Said," Chapter 17 in David Lodge and Nigel Wood. Modern Criticism and Theory: A Reader, 271-284. Harlow, England: Pearson, 2000.

Longino, Michèle. Orientalism in French Classical Drama. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Longxi, Zhang. “The Myth of the Other: China in the Eyes of the West.” Critical Inquiry 15, 1 (Autumn, 1988): 108-131.

López-Calvo, Ignacio. Alternative Orientalisms in Latin America and Beyond. Newcastle, United Kingdom: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007.

__________. Imaging the Chinese in Cuban Literature and Culture. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2008.

Lowe, Lisa. Critical Terrains: French and British Orientalisms. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1991.

__________. "Des Chinoises: Orientalism, Psychoanalysis, and Feminine Writing." In Ethics, Politics, and Difference in Julia Kristeva's Writing, Kelly Oliver, ed., 150-163. New York: Routledge, 1993.

__________. "French Literary Orientalism: Representations of `Others' in the Texts of Montesquieu, Flaubert, and Kristeva." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1986.

__________. "Rereadings in Orientalism: Oriental Inventions and Inventions of the Orient in Montesquieu’s Lettres persanes.” Cultural Critique 15 (1990): 115-143.


Ma, Sheng-Mei. The Deathly Embrace: Orientalism and Asian American Identity. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.

Macfie, A. L. The Eastern Question. London: Longman, 1996.

__________. Orientalism. London: Longman, 2002.

__________. Orientalism: A Reader. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000.

MacKenzie, John M. "Edward Said and the Historians." Nineteenth Century Studies 18 (1994): 9-25.

__________. Orientalism: History, Theory, and the Arts. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.

__________. "A Reply to My Critics." Nineteenth-Century Studies 19 (1995): 91-100.

MacKinnon, Colin R. "Talking Back: `Orientalism' and the Orientals." Humanities Report 4, 2 (February 1982):4-7.

MacLeod, Alex. "Can Any Good Thing Come Out Of Palestine? Orientalism and Eastern Christianity in Protestant Writings about the Holy Land, 1839-1908." Historical Papers: Canadian Society of Church History (2006): 39-54.

Majeed, Javed. Uncovered Imaginings: Jame's Mill's The History of British India and Orientalism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.

Makdisi, Ussama. "Ottoman Orientalism." American Historical Review 107, 3 (June 2002): 768-796.

Malek, Abdel Anwar. "Orientalism in Crisis." Diogenes 44 (Winter 1963): 104-112. In Orientalism: A Reader. Edited by A. L. Macfie, 47-56. New York: New York University Press, 2000.

Malti-Douglas, Fedwa. "Re-orienting Orientalism." Virginia Quarterly Review 55, 4 (1979): 724–733.

Mani, Lata and Ruth Frankenberg. "The Challenge of Orientalism." Economy and Society 14, 2 (May 1985): 174-192.

Marchand, Suzanne L. German Orientalism in the Age of Empire. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Marrouchi, Mustapha. Edward Said at the Limits. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 2004.

Marshall, Peter. "Oriental Studies." In The History of the University of Oxford, vol. 5. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.

Martin, Catherine Gimelli. "Orientalism and the Ethnographer: Said, Herodotus, and the Discourse of Alterity." Criticism 32 4 (Fall 1990): 511-529.

Matar, Nabil ed. In the Lands of Christians: Arabic Travel Writing in the Seventeenth Century. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Mayuzumi, Kimine. "Navigating Orientalism: Asian Women Faculty in the Canadian Academy." Race Ethnicity and Education 18, 2 (2015): 277-296.

Mazrui, Ali AlʼAmin. "The Re-invention of Africa: Edward Said, V. Y. Mudimbe, and Beyond." Research in African Literatures 36, 3 ( Fall 2005): 68-82.

Mazumdar, Sucheta, Vasant Kaiwar, and Thierry Labica, eds. From Orientalism to Postcolonialism: Asia, Europe and the Lineages of Difference. London: Routledge, 2011.

McCabe, Ina Baghdiantz. Orientalism in Early Modern France: Eurasian Trade, Exoticism, and the Ancien Régime. Oxford; New York: Berg, 2008.

McCarthy, Conor. The Cambridge Introduction to Edward Said. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

McGetchin, Douglas T. Indology, Indomania, and Orientalism: Ancient India's Rebirth in Modern Germany. Cranbury, New Jersey: Associated University Presses, 2009.

McInnes, Neil. "'Orientalism,' the Evolution of a Concept." The National Interest, 54 (Winter 1998): 73-81.

McLaren, Martha. "From Analysis to Prescription: Scottish Concepts of Asian Despotism in Early Nineteenth-Century British India." International History Review 15, 3 (August 1993): 469-501.

Mellor, Philip A. "Orientalism, Representation, and Religion: the Reality Behind the Myth." Religion 34 (2004): 99-112.

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Reviews of Said's Orientalism

Arac, Jonathan. Clio 9, 3 (Spring 1980): 465-468.

Asad, Talal. English Historical Review 95, 376 (July 1980): 648-649.

Beckingham, C. F. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 42, 3 (October 1979): 562-564.

Brombert, Victor. American Scholar 48, 4 (Autumn 1979): 532-542.

Butterworth, Charles E. The American Political Science Review 74, 1 (March 1980): 174–176.

Clifford, James. History and Theory 19, 2 (February 1980): 204-223.

al-Dabbagh, Abdulla. Sixteenth Century Journal 40, 1 (Spring 2009): 27-30.

Dawn, C. Ernest. American Historical Review 84, 5(December 1979): 1334.

Gran, Peter. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 100, 3 (July-October, 1980): 328-331.

Hitchens, Christopher. Atlantic 292, 2 (September 2003): 153.

Hourani, Albert. New York Review of Books (8 March 1979): 27-30.

Kerr, Malcolm H. International Journal of Middle East Studies 12, 4 (December 1980): 544-547.

Kiernan, V. G. Journal of Contemporary Asia 9, 3 (1979): 345-350.

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Plumb, J. H. New York Times Book Review (18 February 1979).

Quandt, William B. Foreign Affairs 76, 5 (September-October 1997): 232.

Schar, Stuart. Race and Class 21, 1 (1979): 67-80.

Swanson, Herbert R. HeRB 7 (September 2003). Available online (here).

Turner, Bryan. Iranian Studies 14, 1-2 (Winter-Spring 1981), 107-112.

Wieseltier, Leon. New Republic 180, 14 (7 April 1979: 27-30, 32-33.

Winder, Bayly. Middle East Journal 35, 4 (Autumn, 1981): 615-619.

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