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Orientalism: A Bibliography

Last updated: July 2015


Prior to the publication of Edward W. Said's Orientalism in 1978, the term Orientalism was generally understood to refer to the European study of "the Orient," most especially the Arab/Muslim Middle East. It was an honorable term for an honorable field of study. Said change that understanding, and his critique of it has spawned a massive, sometime angry literature concerning the nature of Orientalism and its uses and misuses.

The purpose of this bibliography is to provide users with a wide variety of sources that have grown out of the Orientalism debate. It includes both ground-breaking and major studies and examples of the many different uses to which the concept of Orientalism has been put. The original version of this bibliography was first posted on this website in 2004 and grew out of my research into the history of Protestant missions and churches in Thailand. In the spring and summer of 2015, I came back to the bibliography and began adding a significant number of new entries. It remains a work in progress.

Herb Swanson
Lowville, New York
July 2015

Books and Articles


Abaza, Mona. "The Discourse on Islamic Fundamentalism in the Middle East and Southeast Asia: A Critical Perspective."Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 6, 2 (August 1991): 203-239.

Abdul-Masi. “Orientalism in Christian Theology.” In Christians and the Middle East Conflict. Edited by Paul S. Rowe, John H. A. Dyck and Jens Zimmermann, 44-52. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Abu-Lughod, Lila. "Orientalism and Middle East Feminist Studies." Feminist Studies 27, 1 (Spring 2001): 101-113.

Achcar, Gilbert. Marxism, Orientalism, Cosmopolitanism. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2013.

Ackerman, Gerald. American Orientalists. Paris: Art Creation Realisation, 1994.

Adelson, Roger. London and the Invention of the Middle East. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1995.

Adluri, Vishwa P. “Pride and Prejudice: Orientalism and German Indology.” International Journal of Hindu Studies 15, 3 (December 2011): 253-292.

Adnan-Adivar, Abdülhak. “A Turkish Account of Orientalism.” Muslim World 43 (1953): 261–282.

Ahmad, Aijaz. "Between Orientalism and Historicism." Studies in History 7, 1 (1991): 135-163.

__________. "Orientalism and After. " In Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader. Edited by Laura Chrisman and Williams Patrick, 162-171. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1994.

__________. In Theory: Classes, Nations, Literatures. London: Verso, 1992.

Al-i Ahmad, Jala, and Hamad Algar, eds. Occidentosis: A Plague from the West. Berkeley, California: Mizen Press, 1984.

Alam, M. Shahid. Challenging the New Orientalism: Dissenting Essays on the "War Against Islam". North Haledon, New Jersey: Islamic Publications International, 2006.

Alcoff, Linda. "The Problem of Speaking for Others." Cultural Critique 20 (Winter 1991-1992): 5-32.

Alloula, Malek. The Colonial Harem. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1986.

Almond, Ian. The New Orientalists: Postmodern Representations of Islam from Foucault to Baudrillard. London: I. B. Tauris, 2007.

Almond, Philip. The British Discovery of Buddhism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Ansell-Pearson, Keith, Benita Parry, and Judith Squires, eds. Cultural Readings of Imperialism: Edward Said and the Gravity of History. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.

App, Urs. The Birth of Orientalism: Encounters with Asia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.

Aravamudan, Srinivas. Enlightenment Orientalism: Resisting the Rise of the Novel. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.

Arjana, Sophia Rose. Muslims in the Western Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Aruri, Naseer Hasan and Muhammad A. Shuraydi. Revising Culture, Reinventing Peace: The Influence of Edward W. Said. New York: Olive Branch Press. 2001.

Ashcroft, Bill. "Representation and Its Discontents: Orientalism, Islam and the Palestinian Crisis." Religion 34 (2004): 113-121.

Ashcroft, Bill and Pal Ahluwalia. Edward Said. London: Routledge, 2001.

al-Azmeh, Aziz. Islams and Modernities. London: Verso, 1993.

Axelrod, Paul, and Fuerch, Michelle A. “Portuguese Orientalism and the Making of the Village Communities of Goa.” Ethnohistory 45, 3 (Summer 1998): 439-476.


Bagchi, Kaushik. "An Orientalist in the Orient: Richard Garbe's Indian Journey, 1885-86." Journal of World History 14, 3 (September 2003): 281-325.

Bakić-Hayden, Milica. "Nesting Orientalisms: The Case of Former Yugoslavia." Slavic Review 54, 4 (Winter 1995): 917-931.

Bakić-Hayden, Milica, and Robert M. Hayden. “Orientalist Variations on the Theme‘ Balkans’: Symbolic Geography in Recent Yugoslav Cultural Politics.” Slavic Review 51, 1 (1992): 1– 15.

Balagangadhara, S. N. "Orientalism, Postcolonialism and the ‘Construction’ of Religion." In Rethinking Religion in India. Edited by Esther Bloch, Marianne Keppens, and Rajaram Hegde, 216-262. London and New York: Routledge, 2010.

Balagangadhara, S. N, and Marianne Keppens. "Reconceptualizing the Postcolonial Project: Beyond the Strictures and Structures of Orientalism." Interventions 11, 1 (2009): 50-68.

Ballantyne, Tony. Orientalism and Race: Aryanism in the British Empire. Palgrave, 2002.

Ballaster, Ros. Fabulous Orients: Fictions of the East in England, 1662-1785. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Barkawi, Tarak and Keith Stanski, eds. Orientalism and War. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.

Bartholomeusz, Tessa. “Spiritual Wealth and Neo-Orientalism.” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 35, 1 (Winter 1998): 19-32.

Bar-Yosef, Eitan. The Holy Land in English Culture 1799-1917: Palestine and the Question of Orientalism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2005.

Bayouli, Tahar. "Elizabethan Orientalism and Its Contexts: the Representation of the Orient in Early Modern English Drama." International Journal of Euro-Mediterranean Studies 1, 1 (2008): 109-128.

Beaulieu, Jill, and Mary Roberts, eds. Orientalism’s Interlocutors: Painting, Architecture, Photography. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2002.

Beckett, Katharine Scarfe. Anglo-Saxon Perceptions of the Islamic World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Behdad, Ali. Belated Travellers: Orientalism in the Age of Colonial Dissolution. Cork: Cork University Press, 1994.

__________. "Orientalism after Orientalism." L'Esprit Createur 34, 2 (Summer 1994): 3-11.

Benjamin, Roger. Orientalist Aesthetics: Art, Colonialism, and French North Africa, 1880-1930. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2003.

Bernstein, Matthew and Gaylyn Studlar, eds. Visions of the East: Orientalism in Film. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1997.

Bhatnagar, Rashmi. "Uses and Limits of Foucault: a Study of the Theme of Origins in Edward Said's Orientalism." Social Scientist/Trivandum 158 (July 1986): 3-22.

Bhattacharya, Nandini. "Maternal Plots, Colonial Fictions: Colonial Pedagogy in Mary Martha Sherwood's Children's Stories." Nineteenth-Century Studies 23 (2001): 381-415.

Bilgin, Pinar. “Is the ‘Orientalist’ Past the Future of Middle East Studies?” Third World Quarterly 25, 2, (2004): 423–433.

Bisaha, Nancy. Creating East and West: Renaissance Humanists and the Ottoman Turks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

Boer, Inge E, ed. After Orientalism: Critical Entanglements, Productive Looks. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2003.

Bohrer, Frederick N. Orientalism and Visual Culture: Imagining Mesopotamia in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Borup, Jorn. “Zen and the Art of Inverting Orientalism: Buddhism, Religious Studies and Interrelated Networks.” In New Approaches to the Study of Religion, Volume I: Regional, Critical, and Historical Approaches. Edited by Peter Antes, Armin W. Geertz, and Randi R. Warne, 451-487. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2004.

Bové, Paul A., ed. Edward Said and the Work of the Critic: Speaking Truth to Power. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2000.

__________. "Hope and Reconciliation: A Review of Edward W. Said." Boundary 20, 2 (Summer 1993):266-282.

Boyarin, Daniel and Jonathon Boyarin. "Toward a Dialogue with Edward Said." Critical Inquiry 15 (Spring 1989): 626-633.

Brantlinger, Patrick. "Nations and Novels: Disraeli, George Eliot and Orientalism. Victorian Studies 35 (1992): 255-275.

__________. Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism 1830-1914. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1990.

Breckenridge, Carol A. and Peter van der Veer, eds. Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament: Perspectives on South Asia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993.

Brown, Stewart J. "William Robertson, Early Orientalism and the Historical Disquisition on India of 1791." Scottish Historical Review 88, 2 (October 2009): 289-312.

Brunotte, Ulrike, Anna-Dorothea Ludewig, and Axel Stähler, eds. Orientalism, Gender, and the Jews: Literary and Artistic Transformations of European National Discourses. Berlin: De Gruyter, Oldenbourg, [2015].

Buchowski, Michal. "The Specter of Orientalism in Europe: From Exotic Other to Stigmatized Brother." Anthropological Quarterly 79, 3 (Summer 2006): 463-482.

Bulliet, Richard W. “Orientalism and Medieval Islamic Studies.” In The Past and Future of Medieval Studies. Edited by John Van Engen, 94–104. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994.

Bustanov, Alfrid K. Soviet Orientalism and the Creation of Central Asian Nations. New York: Routledge, 2015.


Cain, Maureen. "Orientalism, Occidentalism and the Sociology of Crime." The British Journal of Criminology 40, 2 (2000):239-260.

Cain, William E. "Reviewing the State of Criticism, III: Edward Said. Orientalism." In The Crisis in Criticism: Theory, Literature, and Reform in English Studies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Unviersity Press, 1984.

Callaghan, Clare. "Selected Bibliography of Work about and of Edward Said's Texts." CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 5, 4 (March 2003). Available online at the CLCWeb website (here).

Camayd-Freixas, Erik, ed. Orientalism and Identity in Latin America: Fashioning Self and Other from the (post)Colonial Margin. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press, 2013.

Cañas, Sandra. “The Little Mosque On the Prairie: Examining (Multi) Cultural Spaces of Nation and Religion.” Cultural Dynamics 20, 3 (2008): 195-211.

Cannadine, David. Ornamentalism: How the British Saw Their Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002

Carrier, James G, ed. Occidentalism: Images of the West. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Reprint. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Carta, Silvio. “Orientalism in the Documentary Representation of Culture.” Visual Anthropology 24, 5 (2011): 403-420.

Cassels, Nancy G., ed. Orientalism, Evangelicalism and the Military Cantonment in Early Nineteenth-Century India: A Historical Overview. Lewistown: Edwin Mellon Press, 1991.

Castronovo, Russ. "Who Wants Interdisciplinary Turf Anyway?" Nineteenth-Century Studies 19 (1995): 85-88.

Chan, Adrian. Orientalism in Sinology. Palo Alto, California: Academic Press, 2009.

Chan, Christine. "Beyond Colonization, Commodification, and Reclamation: Recognizing and Retheorizing the Role of Religion in Hula." Pomona Senior Theses, Paper 3, 2011.

Chaudhuri, Nupur, and Margaret. Strobel, eds. Western Women and Imperialism: Complicity and Resistance. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1992.

Chua, Peter. “Orientalism as Cultural Practices and the Production of Sociological Knowledge.” Sociology Compass 2, 4 (July 2008): 1179-1191.

Clarke, J. J. Orientalism Enlightenment: the Encounter between Asia and Western Thought. London: Routledge, 1997.

Clifford, James. "On Orientalism." In The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth-Century Ethnography, Literature, and Art. Cambridge, Massachussetts: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Codell, J. F. and D. S. Macleod. Orientalism Transposed: the Impact of the Colonies on British Culture. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 1998.

Cohen, Warren I., ed. Reflections on Orientalism. East Lansing, Michigan: Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University, 1983.

Conant, Martha Pike. The Oriental Tale in England in the Eighteenth Century. New York: Octagon Books, 1966.

Coronil, Fernando. “Beyond Occidentalism: Toward Nonimperial Geohistorical Categories.” Cultural Anthropology 11, 1 (February 1996): 51–87.

Courville, Mathieu, Edward Said's Rhetoric of the Secular. London and New York: Continuum Publishing, 2010.

Costaa, Janeen Arnold. "Paradisal Discourse: A Critical Analysis of Marketing and Consuming Hawaii." Consumption Markets & Culture 1, 4 (1998): 303-346.

Crawley, William. "Sir William Jones: A Vision of Orientalism." Asian Affairs 27, 2 (June 1996): 163–176.

Crinson, Mark. Empire Building: Orientalism and Victorian Architecture. London: Routledge, 1996.

Currie, Kate. Beyond Orientalism: An Exlporation of Some Recent Themes in Indian History and Society. Calcutta: K. P. Bagchi & Company, 1996.

Curthoys, Ned and Debjani Ganguly. Edward Said: The Legacy of a Public Intellectual. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. 2007


Dabashi, Hamid. Post-Orientalism: Knowledge and Power in Time of Terror. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2009.

Dahab, F. Elizabeth. "On Edward Said, Scholar and Public Intellectual." CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 5, 4 (March 2003). Available online at the CLCWeb website (here).

Dahl, Darren E. “Criticizing ‘Secular Criticism’: Reading Religion in Edward Said and Kathryn Tanner.” Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses 31, 3-4 (September 2002): 59-371.

Dalby, Michael. "Nocturnal Labors in the Light of Day." Journal of Asian Studies 39, 3 (May 1980): 485-493.

Dallmayr, Fred. Beyond Orientalism: Essays on Cross-Cultural Encounter. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1996.

__________. "Exit From Orientalism: Comments on Wilhelm Halbfass." In Beyond Orientalism: The Work of Wilhelm Halbfass and Its Impact on Indian and Cross-Cultural Studies. Edited by Eli Franco, Karin Preisendanz, and Wilhelm Halbfass, 49-70. Amsterdam: Rodopi B.V., 1997. 1st Indian edition. Delhi: Motilal Benarsidass, 2007.

__________. "The Politics of Nonidentity: Adorno, Postmodernism—and Edward Said." Political Theory 25, 1 (February 1997): 33-56.

al-Da'mi, Muhammed A. "Orientalism and Arab-Islamic History: an Inquiry into the Orientalists' Motives and Compulsions" Arab Studies Quarterly 20, 4 (Fall 1998): 1-11.

Daniel, Norman. Islam and the West. Edinburgh: University Press, 1960. New ed. Oxford: One World, 2009.

David, Robert G. The Arctic in the British Imagination 1818-1914. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000.

Davies, Kristian. The Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India. New York: Laynfaroh, 2005.

Denny, Walter B. "Orientalism in European Art." The Muslim World 73, 3-4 (July-October 1983): 262-277.

Dew, Nicholas. Orientalism in Louis XIV's France. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Dirlik, Arif. "Chinese History and the Question of Orientalism." History and Theory 35, 4 (December 1996): 96-118.

Dobie, Madeleine. Foreign Bodies: Gender, Language, and Culture in French Orientalism. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2001.

Donaldson, Laura E. Decolonizing Feminisms: Race, Gender, and Empire-Building. London: Routledge, 1993.

Doniger, Wendy. “Presidential Address: ‘I have Scinde’: Flogging a Dead (White Male Orientalist) Horse.” The Journal of Asian Studies 58, 4 (November 1999): 940–960.

Dossa, Shiraz. “Political Philosophy and Orientalism: The Classical Origins of a Discourse.” Alternatives 12, 3 (July 1987): 343–357.

Driver, Felix. Geography Militant: Cultures of Exploration and Empire. Oxford and Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell, 2001.

Dutton, Michael and Peter Williams. "Translating Theories: Edward Said on Orientalism, Imperialism and Alterity." Southern Review: Literary and Interdisciplinary Essays 26, 3 (November 1993): 314-57.


Edwards, Holly, ed. Noble Dreams, Wicked Pleasures: Orientalism in America, 1870-1930. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Elmarsafy, Ziad, Anna Bernard, and David Attwell, eds. Debating Orientalism. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, England and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Enkvist, Inger. "Juan Goytisolo: A Special Kind of Orientalism." Readerly/Writerly Texts: Essays on Literature, Literary/Textual Criticism, and Pedagogy 5, 1-2 (Fall-Summer 1997-1998): 15-71.

Ernst, Carl W. "Between Orientalism and Fundamentalism: Problematizing the Teaching of Sufism." In Teaching Islam. Edited by Brannon M. Wheeler, 108-123. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Esonwanne, Uzoma. "Critique and Extension: Said and Freud." Research in African Literatures 36, 3 (Fall 2005): 98-111.


Figueira, Daurius. Exiting a Racist Worldview: A Journey Through Foucault, Said and Marx to Liberation. New York: iUniverse, 2004.

Fleming, K. E. "Orientalism, the Balkans, and Balkan Historiography." The American Historical Review 105, 4 (October 2000): 1218-1233.

Foltz, Richard. "Muslim 'Orientalism' in Medieval Travel Accounts of India." Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses 37, 1 (March 2008): 81-95.

Fox, Richard G. "East of Said." In Edward Said: A Critical Reader. Edited by Michael Sprinker, 144-146. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.

Freitag, Ulrike. "The Critique of Orientalism." In Companion to Historiography, edited by Michael Bentley, 620-640. London and New York: Routledge, 1997.


Gabrieli, Francesco. “Apology for Orientalism.” Diogenes 13, 50 (June 1965): 128-136. Also in Orientalism: A Reader. Edited by A. L. Macfie, 79-85. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000.

Gallagher, Nancy Elizabeth, ed. Approaches to the History of the Middle East: Interviews with Leading Middle East Historians. Reading, United Kingdom: Ithaca Press, 1994.

Ganim, John M. "Medievalism and Orientalism at the World's Fairs." Studia Anglica Posnaniensia: International Review of English Studies 38 (Mid-Summer 2002): 179-190.

Gellner, E. "In Defence of Orientalism." Sociology 14, 2 (1980): 295-300.

Gemie, Sharif. "France, Orientalism and Algeria: 54 Articles from the Revue des Deux Mondes." Journal of Algerian Studies 3 (1998): 48-70.

Gerber, Haim. “Zionism, Orientalism, and the Palestinians.” Journal of Palestine Studies 33, 1 (Fall 2003: 23-41.

Gewertz, Deborah and Frederick Errington. “We Think, Therefore They Are? On Occidentalizing the World.” Anthropological Quarterly 64, 2 (April 1991): 80– 91.

Ghazoul, Ferial J., ed. Edward Said and Critical Decolonization. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2007.

__________. "Orientalism: Clearing the Way for Cultural Dialogue." Religion 34 (2004): 123-127.

Gifford, James. "Reading Orientalism and the Crisis of Epistemology in the Novels of Lawrence Durrell." CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 1, 2 (June 1999). Available online at the CLCWeb website (here).

Goddall, Laura M. “The ‘Otherized’ Latino: Edward Said’s Orientalism Theory and Reforming Suspect Class Analysis.” Journal of Constitutional Law 16, 3 (February 2014): 835-860.

Gordon, David C. "Orientalism." Antioch Review 40, 1 (Winter 1982):104-112.

Graf, Arndt, Schirin Fathi, and Paul Ludwig. Orientalism and Conspiracy: Politics and Conspiracy Theory in the Islamic World. London: I.B. Tauris, 2011.

Graf, E.C. "When an Arab Laughs in Toledo: Cervantes's Interpellation of Early Modern Spanish Orientalism." Diacritics: A Review of Contemporary Criticism 29, 2 (Summer 1999): 68-85.

Gregory, Derek. "Imaginative Geographies." Progress in Human Geography 19, 4 (1995): 447-485.

Griffin, Robert J. "Ideology and Misrepresentation: a Response to Edward Said." Critical Inquiry 15 (Spring 1989): 611-625.


Hadidi, Sobhi. "The 1994 Paris Interview with Edward Said." JUSOOR 5/6 (n.d.).

Hägerdal, Hans. “The Orientalism Debate and the Chinese Wall: An Essay on Said and Sinology.” Itinerario 21, 3 (November 1997): 19–40.

Haggis, Jane. "Gendering colonialism or colonising gender? Recent Women’s Studies approaches to white women and the history of British colonialism." Women’s Studies International Forum 13 (1990): 105–115.

Al-Hajri, Hilal. British Travel-writing on Oman: Orientalism Reappraised. Bern: Peter Lang, 2006.

Halliday, F. "Orientalism and Its Critics." British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 20, 2 (1993): 145-163.

Hamilton, Alistair, and Francis Richard. André Du Ryer and Oriental Studies in Seventeenth-Century France. London: University of Oxford Press, 2004.

Hanson, Debra. "Orientalism Today: Revisions and Remakings." Tasmeem 2014:5. Available online (here).

Harlow, Barbara and Mia Carter, eds. Imperialism & Orientalism: a Documentary Sourcebook. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1999.

Harris, W. V. Rethinking the Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Harrison, Rachel V. and Peter A. Jackson, eds. The Ambiguous Allure of the West: Traces of the Colonial in Thailand. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010.

Hart, William D. Edward Said and the Religious Effects of Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Hassan, Waïl S. Immigrant Narratives: Orientalism and Cultural Translation in Arab American and Arab British literature. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Hedges, Paul. "Post-Colonialism, Orientalism, and Understanding: Religious Studies and the Christian Missionary Imperative." Journal of Religious History 32, 1 (March 2008): 55-75.

Heehs, Peter. “Shades of Orientalism: Paradoxes and Problems in Indian Historiography.” History and Theory 42, 2 (May 2003: 169-195.

Hess, Jonathan M. “Johann David Michaelis and the Colonial Imaginary: Orientalism and the Emergence of Racial Antisemitism in Eighteenth-Century Germany.” Jewish Social Studies 6, 2 (Winter 2000):56–101.

Higgins, Iain Macleod. "Shades of the East: Orientalism, Religion, and Nation in Late Medieval Scottish Literature." Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 38, 2 (Spring 2008): 197-228.

Hildreth, Martha L. "Lamentations on Reality: A Response to John M. MacKenzie's 'Edward Said and the Historians.'" Nineteenth-Century Studies 19 (1995): 65-73.

Hill, Michael. “The Historical Roots of Reverse Orientalism and Their Recapitulation in Wo Chang’s England through Chinese Spectacles (1897).” Asian Journal of Social Science 38, 5 (2010): 677-695.

Hinz, Catherina and Isolde Kurz. "From Orientalism to Post-Orientalism: Middle Eastern and South Asian Perspectives." Thamyris: Mythmaking from Past to Present 3, 2 (Autumn 1996): 335-65.

Hodkinson, James R. and John Walker; with Shaswati Mazumdar and Johannes Feichtinger, eds. Deploying Orientalism in Culture and History: From Germany to Central and Eastern Europe. Rochester, New York: Camden House, 2013.

Hoeveler, Diane Long, and Jeffrey Cass, eds. Interrogating Orientalism: Contextual Approaches and Pedagogical Practices. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 2006.

Hong, Fan. Sport, Nationalism and Orientalism: The Asian Games. New York: Routledge, 2007.

Howes, Craig. "Hawaii Through Western Eyes: Orientalism and Historical Fiction for Children." The Lion and the Unicorn 11, 1 ( June 1987): 68-87.

Huggan, Graham. "(Not) Reading Orientalism." Research in African Literatures 36, 3 (Fall 2005): 124-136.

Hughes, Aaron W. Situating Islam: The Past and Future of an Academic Discipline. London: Equinox, 2007.

Hung, Ho-Fung. “Orientalist Knowledge and Social Theories: China and the European Conceptions of East-West Differences from 1600 to 1900.” Sociological Theory 21, 3 (September 2003): 254-280.

Hussain, Asaf, Robert W Olson, and Jamil A Qureshi, eds. Orientalism, Islam, and Islamists. Brattleboro, Vermont: Amana Books, 1984.

Hussein, Abdirahman A. Edward Said: Criticism and Society. London: Verso, 2002.


Inden, Ronald. Imagining India. Oxford: Blackwell, 1990.

__________. "Orientalist Constructions of India." Modern Asian Studies 20, 3 (July 1986): 401-446.

Ingleby, Jonathan. "The Involvement of Christian Missions in Education: Colonial Ploy or Commitment to the Poor; Historical Resources in the Contemporary Debate." Journal of the Henry Martyn Institute 18, 2 (July-December 1999): 48—61.

Irwin, Robert. Dangerous Knowledge: Orientalism and Its Discontents. New York: The Overlook Press, Peter Mayer Publishers, Inc., 2006.

__________. For Lust of Knowing: The Orientalists and Their Enemies. London: Allen Lane, 2006.

Iskander, Adel and Hakem Rustom, eds. Edward Said: A Legacy of Emancipation and Representation. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2010.

Iwamura, Jane Naomi. "The Oriental Monk in American Popular Culture." In Religion and Popular Culture in America, Rev. Ed. Edited by Bruce Forbes and Jeffrey Mahan, 25-43. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2005.

__________. Virtual Orientalisms: Asian Religions and American Popular Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.


Jameelah, Maryam. Islam and Orientalism. Lahore, Pakistan: Mohammad Yusuf Khan & Sons, 1981.

Jansson, David R. "Internal Orientalism in America: W.J. Cash’s The Mind of the South and the Spatial Construction of American National Identity." Political Geography 22 (2003): 293–316.

Jersild, Austin. Orientalism and Empire: North Caucasus Mountain Peoples and the Georgian Frontier, 1845–1917. Montreal: McGill–Queen's University Press, 2002.

Jivraj, Suhraiya, and Didi Herman. "'It is Difficult for a White Judge to Understand': Orientalism, Racialisation, and Christianity in English Child Welfare Cases." Child and Family Law Quarterly 21, 3 (2009): 283-308.

Johnson, Christopher D. L. “’He Has Made the Dry Bones Live’: Orientalism’s Attempted Resuscitation of Eastern Christianity.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 82, 3 (2014):811-840.

Jones, David Martin. The Image of China in Western Social and Political Thought. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, England: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001.

Jouhki, Jukka. "Orientalism and India." J@rgonia 4, 8 (2006).

Jun, Helen H., “Black Orientalism: Nineteenth-Century Narratives of Race and U.S. Citizenship.” American Quarterly, 58, 4 (December 2006): 1047–66.

__________. Race for Citizenship: Black Orientalism and Asian Uplift from Pre-emancipation to Neoliberal America. New York: New York University Press, 2011.

Jung, Dietrich. Orientalists, Islamists and the Global Public Sphere: A Genealogy of the Modern Essentialist Image of Islam. Sheffield, United Kingdom: Equinox Publishing, 2011.


Kabbani, Rana. Europe's Myths of the Orient. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Kahf, Mohja. Western Representations of the Muslim Woman: From Termagant to Odalisque. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1999.

Kalmar, Ivan Davidson. Early Orientalism: Imagined Islam and the Notion of Sublime Power. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Kalmar, Ivan Davidson, and Derek J Penslar. Orientalism and the Jews. Waltham, Massachusetts: Brandeis University Press, 2005.

Kaplan, Martha ,and John Kelly. “On Discourse and Power: ‘Cults’ and ‘Orientals’ in Fiji.” American Ethnologist 26, 4 (November 1999): 843-863.

Kaplan Robert D. The Arabists: The Romance of an American Elite. New York, Free Press, 1993.

Kapp, Robert A. "Introduction to Review Symposium of Edward Said's Orientalism." Journal of Asian Studies 39, 3 (May 1980):481-484.

Karezyńska, Elisa. "Orientalism as a Sign of Provincialism." Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 100, 1 (2012):177-195.

Karsh, Efraim and Rory Miller. “Did Edward Said Really Speak Truth to Power?” Middle East Quarterly 15, 1 (Winter 2008): 13-21.

Kelly, Gary. "Social Conflict, Nation and Empire: From Gothicism to Romantic Orientalism." Ariel 20, 2 (1989): 5-18.

Kemper, Michael, and Artemy M. Kalinovsky. Reassessing Orientalism: Interlocking Orientologies During the Cold War. London: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, 2015.

Kennedy, Valerie. Edward Said: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000.

__________. "Orientalism." An annotated bibliography available online at Oxford Bibliographies (here).

Kerr, Malcolm H., ed. Islamic Studies: A Tradition and Its Problems. Malibu, California: Undena, 1980.

Khalaf, Samir. Protestant Missionaries in the Levant: Ungodly Puritans, 1820-1860. London, New York: Routledge, 2012.

Khalid, Adeeb. "Russian History and the Debate Over Orientalism." Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 1, 4 (Fall 2000 New Series): 691-699.

Khalid, Maryam. “‘Gendering Orientalism’: Gender, Sexuality, and Race in Post-9/11 Global Politics.” Critical Race and Whiteness Studies 10, 1 (2014).

Khalifa, Mohammad. The Sublime Qur'ān and Orientalism. New York: Longman, 1983.

Khazzoom, Aziza. "The Great Chain of Orientalism: Jewish Identity, Stigma Management, and Ethnic Exclusion in Israel." American Sociological Review 68, 4 (August 2003): 481-510.

Kim, Nami. "Engaging Afro/black-Orientalism: A Proposal." Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Religion 1, 7 (June 2010): 1-22.

King, Edward. Virtual Orientalism in Brazilian Culture. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

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Thomas, Nicholas. “Anthropology and Orientalism.” Anthropology Today 7, 2 (April 1991): 4-7.

Thompson, James. The East: Imagined, Experienced, Remembered - Orientalist Nineteenth Century Painting. Liverpool: National Museums & Galleries on Merseyside, 1988.

Tibawi, A. L. "English-Speaking Orientalists: A Critique of Their Approach to Islam and Arab Nationalism. Part 1." Islamic Quarterly 8, 1 & 2 (January-June 1964): 25-45.

__________. "English-Speaking Orientalists: A Critique of Their Approach to Islam and Arab Nationalism. Part 2." Islamic Quarterly 8, 3 & 4 (July-December 1964): 73-87.

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Tolmacheva, Marina. “The Medieval Arabic Geographers and the Beginnings of Modern Orientalism.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 27, 2 (May 1995): 141–156.

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Treat, John Whittier. Great Mirrors Shattered: Homosexuality, Orientalism, and Japan. New York: Oxford University Press 1999.

Trivundza, Ilija Tomanic. "Orientalism as News: Pictorial Representations of the US Attack on Iraq in Delo." Journalism 5, 4 (November 2004): 480-499.

Tuastad, Dag. “Neo-Orientalism and the New Barbarism Thesis: Aspects of Symbolic Violence in the Middle East Conflict(s).” Third World Quarterly 24, 4 (August 2003): 591-599.

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U - V

Ueno, Chizuko “In the Feminine Guise: A Trap of Reverse Orientalism.” U.S.-Japan Women's Journal. English Supplement 13 (1997): 3-25.

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Viswanathan, Gauri, ed. Power, Politics, and Culture: Interviews With Edward Said. New York: Vintage, 2001.

Vukovich, Daniel. China and Orientalism: Western Knowledge Production and the PRC. London: Routledge, 2013.


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Ware, Vron. Beyond the Pale: White Women, Racism and History. London and New York: Verso, 1992.

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Womack, Deanna Ferre. “Edward Said and the Orientalised Body: A Call for Missiological Engagement.” Swedish Missiological Themes 99, 4 (2011): 441–61.

X - Y - Z

Xavier, Ângela Barreto, and Ines G. Županov. Catholic Orientalism: Portuguese Empire, Indian Knowledge (16th-18th Centuries). New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Yeğenoğlu, Meyda. Colonial Fantasies: Towards a Feminist Reading of Orientalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

__________. "Supplementing the Orientalist Lack: European Ladies in the Harem." In Orientalism and Cultural Differences, edidted by Mahmut Mutman and Meyda Yegenoglu, 45-80. Center for Cultural Studies, U. C. S. C., 1992.

Yoshihara, Mari. Embracing the East: White Women and American Orientalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Young, Robert. White Mythologies: Writing History and the West. London: Routledge, 1990.

Youngs, Tim. "The Connection Between Things." Nineteenth-Century Studies 19 (1995): 81-84.

Yu, Henry. Thinking Orientals: Migration, Contact, and Exoticism in Modern America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Zeleza, Tiyambe, "The Politics and Poetics of Exile: Edward Said in Africa." Research in African Literatures 36, 3 (Fall 2005):. 1-22.

Zeydanlıoğlu, Welat. "'The White Turkish Man’s Burden': Orientalism, Kemalism and the Kurds in Turkey." In Neo-colonial Mentalities in Contemporary Europe? Language and Discourse in the Construction of Identities,. Edited by Guido Rings and Anne Ife, 155-174. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008.

Reviews of Said's Orientalism

Arac, Jonathan. Clio 9, 3 (Spring 1980): 465-468.

Asad, Talal. English Historical Review 95, 376 (July 1980): 648-649.

Beckingham, C. F. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 42, 3 (October 1979): 562-564.

Brombert, Victor. American Scholar 48, 4 (Autumn 1979): 532-542.

Butterworth, Charles E. The American Political Science Review 74, 1 (March 1980): 174–176.

Clifford, James. History and Theory 19, 2 (February 1980): 204-223.

al-Dabbagh, Abdulla. Sixteenth Century Journal 40, 1 (Spring 2009): 27-30.

Dawn, C. Ernest. American Historical Review 84, 5(December 1979): 1334.

Gran, Peter. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 100, 3 (July-October, 1980): 328-331.

Hitchens, Christopher. Atlantic 292, 2 (September 2003): 153.

Hourani, Albert. New York Review of Books (8 March 1979): 27-30.

Kerr, Malcolm H. International Journal of Middle East Studies 12, 4 (December 1980): 544-547.

Kiernan, V. G. Journal of Contemporary Asia 9, 3 (1979): 345-350.

Pipes, Daniel. Presented to the Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society, 1979. Available online (here).

Plumb, J. H. New York Times Book Review (18 February 1979).

Quandt, William B. Foreign Affairs 76, 5 (September-October 1997): 232.

Rosen, Lawrence. Boston Review (1 January 2007). Available online (here).

Schar, Stuart. Race and Class 21, 1 (1979): 67-80.

Swanson, Herbert R. HeRB 7 (September 2003). Available online (here).

Turner, Bryan. Iranian Studies 14, 1-2 (Winter-Spring 1981), 107-112.

Wieseltier, Leon. New Republic 180, 14 (7 April 1979: 27-30, 32-33.

Winder, Bayly. Middle East Journal 35, 4 (Autumn, 1981): 615-619.

Yeghiayan, Eddie. "Reviews of Edward Said's Orientalism (1978)." Available online (here).